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Mammalian genomes harbor a larger than expected number of complex loci, in which multiple genes are coupled by shared transcribed regions in antisense orientation and/or by bidirectional core promoters. To determine the incidence, functional significance, and evolutionary context of mammalian complex loci, we identified and characterized 5,248 cis-antisense(More)
In recent years, natural antisense transcripts (NATs) have been implicated in many aspects of eukaryotic gene expression including genomic imprinting, RNA interference, translational regulation, alternative splicing, X-inactivation and RNA editing. Moreover, there is growing evidence to suggest that antisense transcription might have a key role in a range(More)
It has been proposed that in cancer, where the bulk of the genome becomes hypomethylated, there is an increase in transcriptional noise that might lead to the generation of antisense transcripts that could affect the function of key oncosuppressor genes, ultimately leading to malignant transformation. Here, we describe the computational identification of a(More)
The GnRH gene is expressed exclusively in a highly restricted population of approximately 800 neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus in the mouse. The Otx2 homeoprotein has been shown to colocalize with GnRH in embryonic mouse brain. We have identified a highly conserved bicoid-related Otx target sequence within the proximal promoter region of the GnRH gene(More)
The ratio of noncoding to protein coding DNA rises with the complexity of the organism, culminating in nearly 99% of nonprotein coding DNA in humans. Nevertheless, a large portion of these regions is transcribed, creating the alleged paradox that noncoding RNA (ncRNA) represents the largest output of the human genome. Such a complex scenario may include(More)
BACKGROUND The role played by genetic factors in influencing the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is not yet well established. OBJECTIVE We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with progressive MS (PrMS). METHODS We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 197 patients with PrMS and 234 controls of Italian origin. We tested(More)
Is evolution an engineer, or is it a tinkerer--a "bricoleur"--building up complex molecules in organisms by increasing and adapting the materials at hand? An analysis of completely sequenced genomes suggests the latter, showing that increasing repetition of modules within the proteins encoded by these genomes is correlated with increasing complexity of the(More)
In the former part of the review the principal available data aboutHox genes, their molecular organisation and their expression in vertebrate embryos, with particular emphasis for mammals, are briefly summarized. In the latter part we analysed the expression of four mouse homeobox genes related to twoDrosophila genes expressed in the developing head of the(More)
Thanks to impressive technology advancements, pervasive expression of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has been recently identified in the genome of numerous cancers. Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) belong to a new class of ncRNAs including tens of thousands different species. A fraction of these molecules shows a striking cancer-enriched expression pattern, suggesting an(More)
Overwhelming evidence indicates that cancer is a genetic disease caused by the accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. It is also increasingly apparent, however, that cancer depends not only on mutations in these coding genes but also on alterations in the large class of non-coding RNAs. Here, we report that one such long(More)