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Recent reports have illustrated a dramatic rise in the use of antipsychotics in preschool children, medications originally designed and licensed for the treatment of adult psychotic disorders. Within this context, the current usage and the associated diagnoses are reviewed and compared with official guidelines and licensing for such use, highlighting a(More)
OBJECTIVE Very few studies have evaluated the subjective experience (SE) in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. The present study aimed to evaluate the SE of antipsychotics in adolescents diagnosed with different psychiatric conditions and to identify explanatory variables of adolescents' SE and compliance with treatment. METHODS The(More)
Associations between psychopathology and gender, duration of MS, disability and therapy with beta-interferons were studied in multiple sclerosis (MS) outpatients. A controlled descriptive epidemiological study was carried out in two Italian outpatient MS centres on 50 outpatients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting MS presenting for regular(More)
Hallucinogens have been part of spiritual practice for millennia, but controversy surrounding their mind-manifesting effects led to their proscription by the mid-20th century, largely without evidence of harm or toxicity and despite nascent data suggesting therapeutic utility in treating depressive illnesses. This review explores their pharmacodynamic(More)
The burden of depressive disorders and the frequent inadequacy of their current pharmacological treatments are well established. The anaesthetic and hallucinogenic drug ketamine has provoked much interest over the past decade or so as an extremely rapidly acting antidepressant that does not modify 'classical' monoaminergic receptors. Current evidence has(More)
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia remains the primary theoretical framework for the pharmacological treatment of the disorder. Despite various lines of evidence of dopaminergic abnormalities and reasonable efficacy of current antipsychotic medication, a significant proportion of patients show suboptimal treatment responses, poor tolerability, and a(More)
Most individuals with schizophrenia suffer some cognitive dysfunction: such deficits are predictive of longer-term functioning; and current dopamine-blocking antipsychotics have made little impact on this domain. There is a pressing need to develop novel pharmacological agents to tackle this insidious but most disabling of problems. The acetylcholinergic(More)
Bipolar affective disorders are common and frequently debilitating mental illnesses. Diagnostic criteria mean they are defined by the presence of pathological mood elevation, but research shows greater disease burden is inflicted by depressive phases (bipolar depression) both in terms of duration and impact of symptoms. Despite this there is consistent(More)
OBJECTIVE This systematic review assessed current evidence on sleep medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients, to establish appropriate guidance for clinicians faced with prescribing such medications. METHODS Five articles (based on four pharmacological compounds) out of a total 337 were identified as evidence to guide(More)
BACKGROUND In the last 5 years an increasing number of studies have found that individuals who have micro-duplications at 16p11.2 may have an increased risk of mental disorders including psychotic syndromes. OBJECTIVE Our main aim was to review all the evidence in the literature for the association between copy number variants (CNVs) at 16p11.2 and(More)