Giovanni Casotti

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Recent evidence has demonstrated that inquiry-based physiology laboratories improve students' critical- and analytical-thinking skills. We implemented inquiry-based learning into three physiology courses: Comparative Vertebrate Physiology (majors), Human Physiology (majors), and Human Anatomy and Physiology (nonmajors). The aims of our curricular(More)
The renal anatomy of three species of sparrows, two from mesic areas, the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia), and one salt marsh species, the Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) was examined. Electron microscopy was used to describe the ultrastructure of the nephron. In addition, stereology was used to quantify(More)
In birds, the kidneys and lower intestine function in osmoregulation. A 271-amino acid homologue to aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) was isolated from the kidneys, cecae, proximal and distal rectum, and coprodeum of the lower intestine in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). This protein has six transmembrane domains connected by two cytoplasmic loops and three(More)
The anionic charge barrier and the endothelial and epithelial pore sizes on the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) were examined in white leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus). Ruthenium red was used to stain anionic charge sites on the GFB. The tissue was treated by normal dehydration and freeze substitution dehydration for transmission electron microscopy(More)
To address the need for greater flexibility in access to higher education, an online graduate course in physiology using case studies was developed and offered in summer 2012. Topics in both animal and human physiology were organized as modules that contained a case study with questions, a prerecorded online lecture, and three research journal articles. We(More)
A mathematical model was used to investigate how concentrated urine is produced within the medullary cones of the quail kidney. Model simulations were consistent with a concentrating mechanism based on single-solute countercurrent multiplication and on NaCl cycling from ascending to descending limbs of loops of Henle. The model predicted a urine-to-plasma(More)
We examined the internal morphology, location of protein, and identity and location of elements, in avian urate-containing spheres in 9 species of birds. The urine spheres were collected from voided samples. The spheres ranged in size from 0.5-5.0 microm, except in the domestic fowl, where they ranged up to 10 microm in diameter. The internal morphology of(More)
The organization of the renal medulla of the Gambel's quail, Callipepla gambelii, kidney was examined to determine the number of loops of Henle and collecting ducts and the surface area occupied by the different nephron segments as a function of distance down the medullary cones. Eleven medullary cones were dissected from the kidneys of four birds, and the(More)
Tissue from the lower intestine of two species of sparrow, the house sparrow Passer domesticus and savannah sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis was sectioned in an unbiased manner and examined quantitatively using stereology. The tissue was processed for light microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy to examine the extent to which(More)
The glomerular capillary architecture of nephrons that include a loop of Henle (looped) and those that lack the loop (loopless) nephrons was examined qualitatively and quantitatively by electron microscopy in Gallus gallus and Callipepla gambelii. The glomerular capillaries of looped nephrons form a dichotomously branched network, while those of loopless(More)