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The causes and mechanisms underlying multidrug resistance (MDR) in epilepsy are still elusive and may depend on inadequate drug concentration in crucial brain areas. We studied whether limbic seizures or anticonvulsant drug treatments in rodents enhance the brain expression of the MDR gene (mdr) encoding a permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) involved in MDR to(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disorder involving the selective degeneration of motor neurons. In a small proportion of patients, ALS is caused by mutations in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), and mice overexpressing SOD1(G93A) mutant develop a syndrome that closely resembles the human disease. Excitotoxicity mediated by(More)
The effects of repeated doses of fluoxetine over time and dose-responses of the content of indoles and catecholamines and metabolism, were examined in rats in relation to the concentrations of the parent compound and its active metabolite norfluoxetine in brain. Brains were removed for assays of the regional content of monoamines and concentrations of drugs(More)
RATIONALE Hyperforin has been identified as an active constituent of Hypericum perforatum but its importance in the antidepressant effect of this plant's extracts is not really known. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the antidepressant-like activity of two extracts in relation to the content of hyperforin and its plasma and whole brain concentrations, compared with(More)
The brain/plasma partition of nefazodone, hydroxynefazodone (OHNFZ) and m-chlorophenyl-piperazine (mCPP) and their antagonism of p-chloroamphetamine (PCA)-induced 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) depletion and quipazine-induced head twitches were compared in rodents. Nefazodone (30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) rapidly entered the brain but concentrations were exceeded by(More)
We examined the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function in methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-treated rats, a model of human developmental brain malformations. We found aberrant vessels morphology and serum albumin leakage in the heterotopic (malformed) hippocampus; these changes were associated with a significant increase in endothelial P-glycoprotein (P-gp)(More)
Memory loss is one of the key features of cognitive impairment in either aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or dementia. Pharmacological treatments for memory loss are today focused on addressing symptomatology. One of these approved compounds is memantine, a partial NMDA receptor antagonist that has proved its beneficial effects in cognition. The(More)
Pharmacoresistance in epileptic patients may be ascribed to at least two, not mutually exclusive, mechanisms: a pharmacokinetic mechanism and a decreased sensitivity or availability of targets to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs; i.e., carbamazepine and phenytoin (CBZ, PHT)). Brain:plasma drug concentration ratios were determined intraoperatively during(More)
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment are the main pathogenic mechanisms of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a severe neurodegenerative disease still lacking of effective therapy. Recently, the coenzyme-Q (CoQ) complex, a key component of mitochondrial function and redox-state modulator, has raised interest for ALS treatment. However, while the(More)
Previous structure-activity relationship studies in the search for a potent, noncompetitive alpha-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist led to 2,3-dimethyl-6-phenyl-12H-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-h]imidazo[1,2-c][2,3]benzodiazepine (ZK 187638). However, the first synthesis had some drawbacks regarding reagents, processes,(More)