Giorgio Trinchieri

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Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric pro-inflammatory cytokine that induces the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), favours the differentiation of T helper 1 (T(H)1) cells and forms a link between innate resistance and adaptive immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) and phagocytes produce IL-12 in response to pathogens during infection. Production of(More)
Human and mouse plasmacytoid dendritic cells have been shown to correspond to a specialized cell population that produces large amounts of type I interferons in response to viruses, the so-called natural interferon-producing cells. As a result, intensive investigation is now focused on the potential functions of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in both innate(More)
Natural killer cell stimulatory factor or interleukin 12 (NKSF/IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine produced by monocytes/macrophages, B cells, and possibly other accessory cell types primarily in response to bacteria or bacterial products. NKSF/IL-12 mediates pleiomorphic biological activity on T and NK cells and, alone or in synergy with other inducers, is(More)
The mechanisms by which the recognition of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands leads to host immunity remain poorly defined. It is now thought that to induce an effective immune response, microorganisms must stimulate complex sets of pattern-recognition receptors, both within and outside of the TLR family. The combined activation of these different receptors(More)
We have identified and purified a novel cytokine, NK cell stimulatory factor (NKSF), from the cell-free supernatant fluid of the phorbol diester-induced EBV-transformed human B lymphoblastoid cell line RPMI 8866. NKSF activity is mostly associated to a 70-kD anionic glycoprotein. The purified 70-kD protein, isolated from an SDS-PAGE gel, yields upon(More)
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine produced mostly by phagocytic cells in response to bacteria, bacterial products, and intracellular parasites, and to some degree by B lymphocytes. IL-12 induces cytokine production, primarily of IFN-gamma, from NK and T cells, acts as a growth factor for activated NK and T cells, enhances the cytotoxic(More)
Originally the only known heterodimeric cytokine, IL-12 is now part of a family of five cytokines and shares important functions in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity with two of them, IL-23 and IL-27. Although initially these three cytokines were considered to have largely overlapping immunological functions, more recent studies, including(More)
Human TLR10 is an orphan member of the TLR family. Genomic studies indicate that TLR10 is in a locus that also contains TLR1 and TLR6, two receptors known to function as coreceptors for TLR2. We have shown that TLR10 was not only able to homodimerize but also heterodimerized with TLRs 1 and 2. In addition, unlike TLR1 and TLR6, TLR10 was expressed in a(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) produce interleukin-12 (IL-12) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. Two major TLR signaling pathways participate in the response to pathogens: the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-dependent pathway leading to inflammatory cytokine secretion including IL-12 and the interferon (IFN)-dependent pathway inducing type I IFN(More)