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Recent progress with spinal cord injured (SCI) patients indicates that with training they can recover some locomotor ability. Here we addressed the question of whether locomotor responses developed with training depend on re-activation of the normal motor patterns or whether they depend on learning new motor patterns. To this end we recorded detailed(More)
What are the building blocks with which the human spinal cord constructs the motor patterns of locomotion? In principle, they could correspond to each individual activity pattern in dozens of different muscles. Alternatively, there could exist a small set of constituent temporal components that are common to all activation patterns and reflect global(More)
OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the prospective construct validity of the walking index for spinal cord injury (WISCI) in US/European clinical population. DESIGN Prospective Cohort in Denmark, Germany, Italy and the USA. PARTICIPANTS/METHOD: Participants with acute complete/incomplete (ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) A, B, C and D) traumatic spinal cord injuries(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that the basic foundations of the self lie in the brain systems that represent the body. Specific sensorimotor stimulation has been shown to alter the bodily self. However, little is known about how disconnection of the brain from the body affects the phenomenological sense of the body and the self. Spinal cord injury (SCI)(More)
Neuroprosthetic technology and robotic exoskeletons are being developed to facilitate stepping, reduce muscle efforts, and promote motor recovery. Nevertheless, the guidance forces of an exoskeleton may influence the sensory inputs, sensorimotor interactions and resulting muscle activity patterns during stepping. The aim of this study was to report the(More)
Focal magnetic transcranial stimulation (TCS) is employed for mapping of the motor cortical output to abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interhemispheric asymmetries in normals. Motor maps were obtained through motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recordings from ADM muscle in 20 healthy subjects in right and left(More)
Six spinal cord injured (SCI) patients were trained to step on a treadmill with body-weight support for 1.5-3 months. At the end of training, foot motion recovered the shape and the step-by-step reproducibility that characterize normal gait. They were then asked to step backward on the treadmill belt that moved in the opposite direction relative to standard(More)
STUDY DESIGN Retrospective examination. OBJECTIVES To compare the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) and current scales for their sensitivity to walking changes in subjects with a spinal cord lesion (SCL) and further validate the WISCI for use in clinical trails. SETTING A large rehabilitation hospital in the center of Italy. PATIENTS AND(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers are a useful tool for determining disease progression or activity in some neurological disorders which need parameters both for evaluating treatments and investigating pathobiological evolution in research-oriented follow-up. A number of CSF proteins are reviewed with data on biological properties, analytical methods,(More)
The objective was to examine the utility of delayed spinal cord injury rehabilitation. The design was a retrospective study in the spinal unit of a large rehabilitation hospital. The participants were 117 patients at their first rehabilitation admission with an event to admission time of 90 days or more. The main outcome measures were the Barthel Index,(More)