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1. The kinetics of photoresponses to flashes and steps of light of rods, from the retina of the newt Triturus cristatus, were analysed by recording the membrane current with a suction electrode. 2. In dark-adapted conditions the relation between the normalized amplitude of the photoresponse at a fixed time 1 s after the onset of light and the light(More)
1. Properties of a new preparation for studying the physiology and biochemistry of phototransduction in retinal rods are described. Whole-cell voltage clamp was used to record the generation, maintenance and light-sensitivity of dark current in rod outer segments that had been isolated from the rest of the receptor cell by detachment at the connecting(More)
L-type and R-type Ca(2+) currents were detected in frog semicircular canal hair cells. The former was noninactivating and nifedipine-sensitive (5 microM); the latter, partially inactivated, was resistant to omega-conotoxin GVIA (5 microM), omega-conotoxin MVIIC (5 microM), and omega-agatoxin IVA (0.4 microM), but was sensitive to mibefradil (10 microM).(More)
In the present work we studied the regional expression of voltage-dependent Ca channels in hair cells from the frog semicircular canals, employing whole-cell patch-clamp on isolated and in situ hair cells. Although Ca channels are thought to play a major role in afferent transmission, up to now no data were available regarding their distribution in(More)
The shutoff of the phototransduction cascade in retinal rods requires the inactivation of light-activated rhodopsin. The underlying mechanisms were studied in functionally intact detached rod outer segments by testing the effect of either sangivamycin, an inhibitor of rhodopsin kinase, or phytic acid, an inhibitor of 48K protein binding to phosphorylated(More)
Transport of K+ by the photoreceptor Na(+)-Ca2+, K+ exchanger was investigated in isolated rod outer segments (OS) by recording membrane current under whole-cell voltage-clamp conditions. Known amounts of K+ were imported in the OS through the Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels while perfusing with high extracellular concentration of K+, [K+]o. These channels(More)
Vertebrate photoreceptors respond to light with a graded hyperpolarization from a membrane potential in the dark of approximately -35 mV. The present work investigates the physiological role of the Ca2+-activated K+ current in the photovoltage generation in mechanically isolated rods from salamander retina. Membrane current or voltage in isolated rods was(More)
1. Using the method of Hodgkin, McNaughton & Nunn (1985) for rapidly changing the extracellular medium, we analysed the effect of divalent cations on the photocurrent of isolated retinal rods of the tiger salamander. 2. When the extracellular NaCl was replaced by equiosmolar amounts of BaCl2, SrCl2, CaCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 the efficacy in carrying the(More)
A steady illumination equivalent to about 1000 or more photoisomerizations per s per rod completely abolishes the dark current and induces a total desensitization of toad rods. Under these conditions, however, both current and sensitivity recover from the initial suppression and reach a new steady level within about 30 s. Both extent and time course of(More)
1. By using the method of Hodgkin, McNaughton & Nunn (1985) for rapidly changing the extracellular medium, we analysed the effect of the organic compound IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) on the movement of divalent cations through the light-sensitive channels of isolated retinal rods of the tiger salamander. 2. When the rod is treated with 0.5 mM-IBMX it(More)