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Activation of the IKK/NF-kappaB signalling pathway is a hallmark of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. However, its role in regulating major immediate-early promoter (MIEP)-dependent transcription and HCMV replication remains controversial. This study uses a combination of genetic approaches to investigate the effects of cell culture conditions on the(More)
The major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) region of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays a critical role in the regulation of lytic and latent infections by integrating multiple signals supplied by the infecting virus, the type and physiological state of the host cell, and its extracellular surroundings. The interaction of cellular transcription factors with(More)
Human interferon (IFN)-inducible IFI16 protein, an innate immune sensor of intracellular DNA, modulates various cell functions, however, its role in regulating virus growth remains unresolved. Here, we adopt two approaches to investigate whether IFI16 exerts pro- and/or anti-viral actions. First, the IFI16 gene was silenced using specific small interfering(More)
The biological activities of interferons (IFNs) are mediated by IFN-induced proteins. One family is encoded by several structurally related genes located on murine chromosome 1 (Ifi 200 cluster) and three homologous genes (MNDA, IFI 16 and AIM2) located on human chromosome 1 as well, within a linkage group highly conserved between mouse and human. All the(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a betaherpesvirus, represents the major infectious cause of birth defects, as well as an important pathogen for immunocompromised individuals. The viral nucleocapsid containing a linear double-stranded DNA of 230 kb is surrounded by a proteinaceous tegument, which is itself enclosed by a loosely applied lipid bilayer.(More)
Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is an essential enzyme for the de novo synthesis of both cellular and viral DNA and catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleoside diphosphates into the corresponding deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates. The enzyme consists of two nonidentical subunits, termed R1 and R2, whose expression is very low in resting cells and maximal in(More)
Monoclonal antibodies against murine immune interferon (IFN-gamma) were produced by fusing the murine nonsecreting myeloma cell line P3.X63.Ag8.653 with spleen cells from rats immunized with IFN-gamma-containing supernatants obtained by stimulating a T-cell lymphoma, L12-R4, with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Supernatants from a twice-cloned hybridoma(More)
Herpesviruses accomplish DNA replication either by expressing their own deoxyribonucleotide biosynthetic genes or by stimulating the expression of the corresponding cellular genes. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has adopted the latter strategy to allow efficient replication in quiescent cells. In the present report, we show that murine CMV (MCMV) infection of(More)
The interaction between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and its host is a complex process that begins with viral attachment and entry into host cells, culminating in the development of a specific adaptive response that clears the acute infection but fails to eradicate HCMV. We review the viral and cellular partners that mediate early host responses to HCMV(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies have disclosed a correlation between polyomavirus BK (BKV) and interstitial nephritis in renal transplant recipients and its quantification in urine and serum is therefore required to assess the role of BKV infection in nephropathy. OBJECTIVE This paper describes a urine and serum BKV-DNA quantification protocol devised to(More)