Giorgio Bernardi

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The effect of tetanic activation of corticostriatal glutamatergic fibers was studied in striatal slices by utilizing extracellular and intracellular recording techniques. Tetanic stimulation produced a long-term synaptic depression (LTD) (> 2 h) of both extracellularly recorded field potentials and intracellularly recorded EPSPs. LTD was not coupled with(More)
Most of the nuclear genome of warm-blooded vertebrates is a mosaic of very long (much greater than 200 kilobases) DNA segments, the isochores; these isochores are fairly homogeneous in base composition and belong to a small number of major classes distinguished by differences in guanine-cytosine (GC) content. The families of DNA molecules derived from such(More)
A complex chain of intracellular signaling events, critically important in motor control, is activated by the stimulation of D1-like dopamine (DA) receptors in striatal neurons. At corticostriatal synapses on medium spiny neurons, we provide evidence that the D1-like receptor-dependent activation of DA and cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate-regulated(More)
The nuclear genomes of vertebrates are mosaics of isochores, very long stretches (>>300kb) of DNA that are homogeneous in base composition and are compositionally correlated with the coding sequences that they embed. Isochores can be partitioned in a small number of families that cover a range of GC levels (GC is the molar ratio of guanine+cytosine in DNA),(More)
Long-term treatment with the dopamine precursor levodopa (L-DOPA) induces dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We divided hemiparkinsonian rats treated chronically with L-DOPA into two groups: one showed motor improvement without dyskinesia, and the other developed debilitating dyskinesias in response to the treatment. We then compared the(More)
In the immune system, extracellular ATP functions as a "natural adjuvant" that exhibits multiple proinflammatory effects. It is released by damaged cells as an indicator of trauma and cell death but can be inactivated by CD39 (nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 [NTPDase 1]), an ectoenzyme that degrades ATP to AMP. Here, we show that CD39 is(More)
Corticostriatal transmission has an important function in the regulation of the neuronal activity of the basal ganglia. The firing activity of corticostriatal neurones excites striatal cells via the release of glutamate. Presynaptic receptors that are located on corticostriatal terminals and that regulate the release of glutamate in the striatum have been(More)
Long-term changes of synaptic transmission following brief trains of high-frequency stimulation of excitatory pathways in the brain have attracted attention as a possible correlate of memory. In the cerebellum, concurrent activation of parallel fibers and climbing fibers leads to a long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission, which may be the(More)
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) are of crucial importance in the striatal processing of motor information received from the cortex. Disruption of the D2R gene function in mice results in a severe locomotor impairment. This phenotype has analogies with Parkinson's disease symptoms. D2R-null mice were used to investigate the role of this receptor in the(More)
Nucleotide sequences of all genomes are subject to compositional constraints that (1) affect, to about the same extent, both coding and noncoding sequences; (2) influence not only the structure and function of the genome, but also those of transcripts and proteins; (3) are the result of environmental pressures; and (4) largely control the fixation of(More)