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Sensory polyneuropathies are the most frequent neurological complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP), associated with HIV infection, is characterized by length-dependent axonal degeneration of sensory fibres. In rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures, HIV viral envelope protein gp120 results in(More)
Small fibre neuropathy (SFN), a condition dominated by neuropathic pain, is frequently encountered in clinical practise either as prevalent manifestation of more diffuse neuropathy or distinct nosologic entity. Aetiology of SFN includes pre-diabetes status and immune-mediated diseases, though it remains frequently unknown. Due to their physiologic(More)
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathies affect many people worldwide and are caused by or associated with a wide range of conditions, both genetic and acquired. Current therapies are directed at symptomatic control because no effective regenerative treatment exists. Primary challenge is that mechanisms that lead to distal axonal degeneration, a common feature(More)
The study investigates if alpha-lipoic acid is neuroprotective against chemotherapy induced neurotoxicity, if mitochondrial damage plays a critical role in toxic neurodegenerative cascade, and if neuroprotective effects of alpha-lipoic acid depend on mitochondria protection. We used an in vitro model of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy that(More)
Paclitaxel causes a sensory polyneuropathy with characteristic features of distal axonal degeneration. Although the exact mechanisms underlying distal axonal degeneration are unknown, paclitaxel-induced axonal degeneration has been shown to be associated with an increase in detyrosinated tubulin. Here we show that recombinant human erythropoietin prevents(More)
Neurotrophin growth factors support neuronal survival and function. In this study, we show that the expression of the neurotrophin receptor TrkB is induced on astrocytes in white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Surprisingly, mice lacking TrkB specifically in astrocytes were(More)
Myelination in the nervous system is a tightly regulated process that is mediated by both soluble and non-soluble factors acting on axons and glial cells. This process is bi-directional and involves a variety of neurotrophic and gliotrophic factors acting in paracrine and autocrine manners. Neuron-derived trophic factors play an important role in the(More)
Progressive axonal degeneration follows demyelination in many neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis and inherited demyelinating neuropathies, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. One glial molecule, the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), located in the adaxonal plasmalemma of myelin-producing cells, is known to signal to the axon and to(More)
Derivative myelin associated glycoprotein (dMAG) results from proteolysis of transmembrane MAG and can inhibit axonal growth. We have tested the ability of certain matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) elevated with inflammatory and demyelinating diseases to cleave MAG. We show MMP-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9, but not MMP-1, cleave recombinant human MAG. Cleavage by(More)
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