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Bacterially derived exotoxins kill eukaryotic cells by inactivating factors and/or pathways that are universally conserved among eukaryotic organisms. The genes that encode these exotoxins are commonly found in bacterial viruses (bacteriophages). In the context of mammals, these toxins cause diseases ranging from cholera to diphtheria to enterohemorrhagic(More)
UNLABELLED Phage-encoded Shiga toxin (Stx) acts as a bacterial defense against the eukaryotic predator Tetrahymena thermophila. It is unknown how Stx enters Tetrahymena protozoa or how it kills them. Tetrahymena protozoa are phagocytotic; hence, Stx could gain entry to the cytoplasm through the oral apparatus or via endocytosis. We find that Stx2 can kill(More)
The precise glycosyltransferase enzymes that mediate selectin-ligand biosynthesis in human leukocytes are unknown. This knowledge is important because selectin-mediated cell tethering and rolling is a critical component of both normal immune response and various vascular disorders. We evaluated the role of 3 α(2,3)sialyltransferases, ST3Gal-3, -4, and -6,(More)
There is often interest in dissecting the relative contributions of the N-glycans, O-glycans and glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in regulating complex biological traits like cell signaling, adhesion, development and metastasis. To address this, we developed a CRISPR-Cas9 toolkit to selectively truncate each of these commonly expressed glycan-types. Here, O-glycan(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent studies suggest that the E-selectin ligands expressed on human leukocytes may differ from those in other species, particularly mice. To elaborate on this, we evaluated the impact of glycosphingolipids expressed on human myeloid cells in regulating E-selectin-mediated cell adhesion. APPROACH AND RESULTS A series of modified human cell(More)
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