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Mutations in leucine-rich glioma inactivated (LGI1) are a genetic cause of autosomal dominant temporal lobe epilepsy with auditory features. LGI1 is a secreted protein that shares homology with members of the SLIT family, ligands that direct axonal repulsion and growth cone collapse, and we therefore considered the possibility that LGI1 may regulate(More)
The Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases plays a role in synaptic plasticity and in behavioral memory in mammals. Here, we report the discovery of a Trk-like receptor, ApTrkl, in Aplysia. We show that it is expressed in the sensory neurons, the locus for synaptic facilitation, which is a cellular model for memory formation. Serotonin, the facilitatory(More)
In vertebrates, a brain-specific transcript from the atypical protein kinase C (PKC) zeta gene encodes protein kinase M (PKM) zeta, a constitutively active kinase implicated in the maintenance of synaptic plasticity and memory. We have cloned the atypical PKC from Aplysia, PKC Apl III. We did not find a transcript in Aplysia encoding PKMzeta, and(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases and a disintegrin and metalloproteinases are members of the zinc endopeptidases, which cleave components of the extracellular matrix as well as cell surface proteins resulting in degradation or release of biologically active fragments. Surface ectodomain shedding affects numerous biological processes, including survival, axon(More)
Myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs) signal through a tripartate receptor complex on neurons to limit axon regeneration in the CNS. Inhibitory influences ultimately converge on the cytoskeleton to mediate growth cone collapse and neurite outgrowth inhibition. Rho GTPase and its downstream effector Rho kinase are key signaling intermediates in response to(More)
Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored receptor for myelin-associated inhibitors that restricts plasticity and axonal regrowth in the CNS. NgR1 is cleaved from the cell surface of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in a metalloproteinase-dependent manner; however, the mechanism and physiological consequence of NgR1 shedding have not(More)
Several major advances in our understanding of axon regeneration and functional repair in the central nervous system (CNS) together with new insights about molecular signaling pathways have led to development of viable drug candidates to treat spinal cord injury. In this review, we focus on Rho, an intracellular small GTPase that is part of a family of(More)
Growth cones regulate the speed and direction of neuronal outgrowth during development and regeneration. How the growth cone spatially and temporally regulates signals from guidance cues is poorly understood. Through a proteomic analysis of purified growth cones we identified isoforms of the 14-3-3 family of adaptor proteins as major constituents of the(More)
CNS myelin inhibits axon growth due to the expression of several growth-inhibitory proteins, including myelin-associated glycoprotein, oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein and Nogo. Myelin-associated inhibitory proteins activate rho GTPase in responsive neurons. Rho kinase (ROCK) has been implicated as a critical rho effector in this pathway due to the(More)
Trauma in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) results in devastating clinical consequences due to the failure of injured axons to spontaneously regenerate. This regenerative failure can be attributed to both a lack of positive cues and to the presence of inhibitory cues that actively prevent regeneration. Substantial progress has been made in(More)