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The minichromosomes M210 and M230 of Leishmania major are linear amplicons which have an inverted repeat structure. We report here the molecular cloning of the megabasic chromosome region where M210 and M230 recombination points are located. The analysis of this chromosomal region revealed a 374 bp fragment directly repeated 3 times, which was also repeated(More)
The genome of Leishmania is quite plastic. Chromosomal rearrangements and DNA amplifications are common events in all the species of the genus. Gene amplification occurs both as a mechanism of drug resistance and in the absence of drug pressure. The best known spontaneous amplification in Leishmania is the so-called LD1 family of amplicons. In the past few(More)
In the parasitic trypanosomatids of the genus Leishmania, novel circular (CD) and linear (LD) multicopy genetic elements arise de novo either spontaneously or as a result of drug selection. We report that the LD1 minichromosomes of L. donovani, L. major and L. mexicana (ranging in size from 180 to 230 kb) have an inverted repeat structure and contain(More)
The 180-kb LD1 minichromosome of Leishmania major (M180) is a large inverted duplication which arises spontaneously from a megabasic chromosome. In this work this locus has been located in the source chromosome at a telomeric position. Both the novel junction created in the middle of the minichromosome, as well as its counterpart region in the source(More)
Fluoroquinolone efflux was studied in 47 Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains with MICs of ciprofloxacin (CFX) of < or = 2 micrograms/ml. Forty-three strains were wild type for gyrA, gyrB, and grlA quinolone resistance-determining regions and for norA and its promoter region. Forty of these strains (MICs of CFX, 0.1 to 0.2 microgram/ml) did not show(More)
The infectivity to mouse macrophages and sandflies, the expression and enzymatic activity of the major surface glycoprotein (gp63), the developmental modification of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) and three metacyclogenesis markers (promastigote body size, lectin agglutination and complement resistance) were compared in four related Leishmania major promastigote(More)
Some years ago the Staphylococcus aureus DNA topoisomerase IV genes were cloned and named grlA and grlB (2). Alterations in the GrlA subunit have been associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates (2). Further work with laboratory mutants supported data which indicated that DNA topoisomerase IV was a primary target of fluoroquinolones in(More)
LH is a glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in folliculogenesis during the natural ovarian cycles. It has the same activity and shares receptors with hCG. However the use of LH in combination with FSH in controlled ovarian stimulation remains controversial. A practical approach concerning the usefulness of LH according to the endogenous level of LH is(More)
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