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A software birthmark is a unique characteristic of a program that can be used as a software theft detection technique. In this paper we present and empirically evaluate a novel birthmarking technique — Whole Program Path Birthmarking — which uniquely identifies a program based on a complete control flow trace of its execution. To evaluate the strength of(More)
Software birthmarking relies on unique characteristics that are inherent to a program to identify the program in the event of suspected theft. In this paper we present and empirically evaluate a novel birthmarking technique which uniquely identifies a program through instruction sequences. To evaluate the strength of the birthmarking technique we examine(More)
A s mobile devices and location systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) and phone-based technologies proliferate, so too does interest in location-based applications. These applications include tourist information systems, buddy services that inform users when a friend is nearby, and location-based advertisements , which marketers send to users(More)
Within the software industry software piracy is a great concern. In this article we address this issue through a prevention technique called software water-marking. Depending on how a software watermark is applied it can be used to discourage piracy; as proof of authorship or purchase; or to track the source of the illegal redistribution. In particular we(More)
SUMMARY We present a study of the static structure of real Java bytecode programs. A total of 1132 Java jar-files were collected from the Internet and analyzed. In addition to simple counts (number of methods per class, number of bytecode instructions per method, etc.), structural metrics such as the complexity of control-flow and inheritance graphs were(More)
The use of pentobarbital-induced coma to manage intractable increased intracranial pressure remains a viable option in the acutely brain-injured patient. In a retrospective review of 15 patients with a variety of neurological injuries at our institution, it was found that aggressive management of respiratory, hemodynamic, metabolic and neurological status(More)