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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Experimental stroke studies indicate that oxidative stress is a major contributing factor to ischemic cerebral injury. Oxidative stress is also implicated in activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and blood-brain barrier injury after ischemia-reperfusion. Plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress may have utility as early(More)
To maintain lifelong production of blood cells, haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are tightly regulated by inherent programs and extrinsic regulatory signals received from their microenvironmental niche. Long-term repopulating HSCs reside in several, perhaps overlapping, niches that produce regulatory molecules and signals necessary for homeostasis and for(More)
Oxidant stress has been implicated in a wide variety of disease processes. One method to quantify oxidative injury is to measure lipid peroxidation. Quantification of a group of prostaglandin F(2alpha)-like compounds derived from the nonezymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid, termed the F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), provides an accurate assessment of(More)
Agents that promote tissue regeneration could be beneficial in a variety of clinical settings, such as stimulating recovery of the hematopoietic system after bone marrow transplantation. Prostaglandin PGE2, a lipid signaling molecule that supports expansion of several types of tissue stem cells, is a candidate therapeutic target for promoting tissue(More)
Ethanol withdrawal is a serious clinical problem owing in part to over stimulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the brain and is linked to elevated oxidative damage. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation is elevated in the brain tissue of rats fed an ethanol-containing diet for 6 weeks followed by 24h of withdrawal. We(More)
OBJECTIVES: Drugs used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have the potential to affect cardiovascular risk factors. There is concern that corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and COX-2 inhibitors could affect cardiovascular risk adversely, while drugs such as the antimalarial, hydroxychloroquine, may have beneficial(More)
Lipid peroxidation of docosahexaenoic (22:6; n-3) acid (DHA) is elevated in the CNS in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in animal models of seizure and ethanol withdrawal. One product of DHA oxidation is trans-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE), a six carbon analog of the n-6 fatty acid derived trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). In this work, we studied the(More)
Prostacyclin is an antithrombotic hormone produced by the endothelium, whose production is dependent on cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes of which two isoforms exist. It is widely believed that COX-2 drives prostacyclin production and that this explains the cardiovascular toxicity associated with COX-2 inhibition, yet the evidence for this relies on indirect(More)
Ischemic preconditioning is a phenomenon in which low-level stressful stimuli upregulate endogenous defensive programs, resulting in subsequent resistance to otherwise lethal injuries. We previously observed that signal transduction systems typically associated with neurodegeneration such as caspase activation are requisite events for the expression of(More)
Aging is associated with marked deficiency in circulating IGF-1, which has been shown to contribute to age-related cognitive decline. Impairment of moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) via neurovascular coupling is thought to play a critical role in the genesis of age-related cognitive impairment. To establish the link between IGF-1(More)