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BACKGROUND Specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) results in the conversion of pluripotent epiblast cells into monopotent germ cell lineage. Blimp1/Prmt5 complex plays a critical role in the specification and maintenance of the early germ cell lineage. However, PGCs can be induced to dedifferentiate back to a pluripotent state as embryonic germ (EG)(More)
Mice in which the Lyn, Cd22, or Shp-1 gene has been disrupted have hyperactive B cells and autoantibodies. We find that in the absence of Lyn, the ability of CD22 to become tyrosine phosphorylated after ligation of mIg, to recruit SHP-1, and to suppress mIg-induced elevation of intracellular [Ca2+] is lost. Therefore, Lyn is required for the SHP-1-mediated(More)
We have investigated the role of the Rho and Rac family small guanine triphosphate (GTP) exchange factors (RhoGEFs), Vav1 and Vav2, in the activation of platelets by the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-coupled collagen receptor GPVI and by the G protein-coupled receptor agonist thrombin. The glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-specific agonist(More)
CD22 is a membrane immunoglobulin (mIg)-associated protein of B cells. CD22 is tyrosine-phosphorylated when mIg is ligated. Tyrosine-phosphorylated CD22 binds and activates SHP, a protein tyrosine phosphatase known to negatively regulate signaling through mIg. Ligation of CD22 to prevent its coaggregation with mIg lowers the threshold at which mIg activates(More)
The transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP1) regulates gene expression and cell fate. The DNA motif bound by BLIMP1 in vitro overlaps with that of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), which respond to inflammatory/immune signals. At such sites, BLIMP1 and IRFs can antagonistically regulate promoter activity. In vitro(More)
  • Mario Cocco, Sophie Stephenson, +7 authors Reuben M Tooze
  • 2012
Plasma cells (PCs), the terminal effectors of humoral immunity, are short-lived unless supported by niche environments in which they may persist for years. No model system has linked B cell activation with niche function to allow the in vitro generation of long-lived PCs. Thus, the full trajectory of B cell terminal differentiation has yet to be(More)
X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is a central regulator of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. It is induced via activation of the IRE1 stress sensor as part of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and has been implicated in several diseases processes. XBP1 can also be activated in direct response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation independently(More)
MHC class II is expressed in restricted lineages and is modulated in response to pathogens and inflammatory stimuli. This expression is controlled by MHC CIITA, which is transcribed from multiple promoters. Although factors required for induction of CIITA are well characterized, less is known about the mechanisms leading to repression of this gene. During(More)
During cellular differentiation, mRNA transcription and translation require precise coordination. The mechanisms controlling this are not well defined. IL-21 is an important regulator of plasma cell differentiation, and it controls the master regulator of plasma cell differentiation, B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP-1), via STAT3 and IRF4.(More)
Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is central to the transcriptional network of activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL), an aggressive lymphoma subgroup defined by gene expression profiling. Since cofactor association modifies transcriptional regulatory input by IRF4, we assessed genome occupancy by IRF4 and endogenous cofactors(More)