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BACKGROUND Specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) results in the conversion of pluripotent epiblast cells into monopotent germ cell lineage. Blimp1/Prmt5 complex plays a critical role in the specification and maintenance of the early germ cell lineage. However, PGCs can be induced to dedifferentiate back to a pluripotent state as embryonic germ (EG)(More)
Mice in which the Lyn, Cd22, or Shp-1 gene has been disrupted have hyperactive B cells and autoantibodies. We find that in the absence of Lyn, the ability of CD22 to become tyrosine phosphorylated after ligation of mIg, to recruit SHP-1, and to suppress mIg-induced elevation of intracellular [Ca2+] is lost. Therefore, Lyn is required for the SHP-1-mediated(More)
The transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP1) regulates gene expression and cell fate. The DNA motif bound by BLIMP1 in vitro overlaps with that of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), which respond to inflammatory/immune signals. At such sites, BLIMP1 and IRFs can antagonistically regulate promoter activity. In vitro(More)
A diverse spectrum of unique peptide-MHC class I complexes guides CD8 T cell responses toward viral or stress-induced Ags. Multiple components are required to process Ag and facilitate peptide loading in the endoplasmic reticulum. IFN-gamma, a potent proinflammatory cytokine, markedly up-regulates transcription of genes involved in MHC class I assembly.(More)
We have investigated the role of the Rho and Rac family small guanine triphosphate (GTP) exchange factors (RhoGEFs), Vav1 and Vav2, in the activation of platelets by the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-coupled collagen receptor GPVI and by the G protein-coupled receptor agonist thrombin. The glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-specific agonist(More)
Plasma cells (PCs) as effectors of humoral immunity produce Igs to match pathogenic insult. Emerging data suggest more diverse roles exist for PCs as regulators of immune and inflammatory responses via secretion of factors other than Igs. The extent to which such responses are preprogrammed in B-lineage cells or can be induced in PCs by the microenvironment(More)
CD22 is a membrane immunoglobulin (mIg)-associated protein of B cells. CD22 is tyrosine-phosphorylated when mIg is ligated. Tyrosine-phosphorylated CD22 binds and activates SHP, a protein tyrosine phosphatase known to negatively regulate signaling through mIg. Ligation of CD22 to prevent its coaggregation with mIg lowers the threshold at which mIg activates(More)
B and T lymphocytes develop normally in mice lacking the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav-2. However, the immune responses to type II thymus-independent antigen as well as the primary response to thymus-dependent (TD) antigen are defective. Vav-2-deficient mice are also defective in their ability to switch immunoglobulin class, form germinal centers(More)
The signaling pathways linked to membrane immunoglobulin (mIg) that are regulated by the coreceptors CD19 and CD22 are not known. The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK2, JNK, and p38 couple extracellular signals to transcriptional responses. The capacity of mIg to activate these MAP kinases is synergistically amplified by coligating CD19, and this(More)
Catabolism of tryptophan by IDO1 plays an important role in the control of immune responses. Activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) kinase general control nonderepressible-2 (GCN2) following tryptophan depletion is a major pathway mediating this effect. However, immunomodulatory target genes of GCN2 activation are poorly defined.(More)