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BACKGROUND Specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) results in the conversion of pluripotent epiblast cells into monopotent germ cell lineage. Blimp1/Prmt5 complex plays a critical role in the specification and maintenance of the early germ cell lineage. However, PGCs can be induced to dedifferentiate back to a pluripotent state as embryonic germ (EG)(More)
Mice in which the Lyn, Cd22, or Shp-1 gene has been disrupted have hyperactive B cells and autoantibodies. We find that in the absence of Lyn, the ability of CD22 to become tyrosine phosphorylated after ligation of mIg, to recruit SHP-1, and to suppress mIg-induced elevation of intracellular [Ca2+] is lost. Therefore, Lyn is required for the SHP-1-mediated(More)
We have investigated the role of the Rho and Rac family small guanine triphosphate (GTP) exchange factors (RhoGEFs), Vav1 and Vav2, in the activation of platelets by the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-coupled collagen receptor GPVI and by the G protein-coupled receptor agonist thrombin. The glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-specific agonist(More)
Plasma cells (PCs) as effectors of humoral immunity produce Igs to match pathogenic insult. Emerging data suggest more diverse roles exist for PCs as regulators of immune and inflammatory responses via secretion of factors other than Igs. The extent to which such responses are preprogrammed in B-lineage cells or can be induced in PCs by the microenvironment(More)
B and T lymphocytes develop normally in mice lacking the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav-2. However, the immune responses to type II thymus-independent antigen as well as the primary response to thymus-dependent (TD) antigen are defective. Vav-2-deficient mice are also defective in their ability to switch immunoglobulin class, form germinal centers(More)
CD22 is a membrane immunoglobulin (mIg)-associated protein of B cells. CD22 is tyrosine-phosphorylated when mIg is ligated. Tyrosine-phosphorylated CD22 binds and activates SHP, a protein tyrosine phosphatase known to negatively regulate signaling through mIg. Ligation of CD22 to prevent its coaggregation with mIg lowers the threshold at which mIg activates(More)
Catabolism of tryptophan by IDO1 plays an important role in the control of immune responses. Activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) kinase general control nonderepressible-2 (GCN2) following tryptophan depletion is a major pathway mediating this effect. However, immunomodulatory target genes of GCN2 activation are poorly defined.(More)
X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is a central regulator of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. It is induced via activation of the IRE1 stress sensor as part of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and has been implicated in several diseases processes. XBP1 can also be activated in direct response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation independently(More)
RhoG, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, has been implicated as a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we show a novel function for the small GTPase RhoG on the regulation of the interferon-gamma promoter and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) gene transcription in lymphocytes. Optimal function of RhoG for the expression of these(More)
B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP-1) acts during differentiation of B cells and monocytes, but was originally identified as a repressor of the IFN-beta promoter induced during viral infection. A central regulator of the intracellular response to viral infection is the interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA activated protein kinase (PKR).(More)