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Deletion or duplication of the human chromosome 22q11.2 is associated with many behavioral traits and neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. However, why phenotypes vary widely among individuals with identical deletions or duplications of 22q11.2 and which specific 22q11.2 genes contribute to these phenotypes are(More)
The characterization of DNA replication origins in yeast has shed much light on the mechanisms of initiation of DNA replication. However, very little is known about the evolution of origins or the evolution of mechanisms through which origins are recognized by the initiation machinery. This lack of understanding is largely due to the vast evolutionary(More)
Duplication of human chromosome 22q11.2 is associated with elevated rates of mental retardation, autism and many other behavioral phenotypes. However, because duplications cover 1.5-6 Mb, the precise manner in which segments of 22q11.2 causally affect behavior is not known in humans. We have now determined the developmental impact of over-expression of an(More)
Social behavior dysfunction is a symptomatic element of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although altered activities in numerous brain regions are associated with defective social cognition and perception, the causative relationship between these altered activities and social cognition and perception-and their genetic underpinnings-are not(More)
Although twin studies indicate clear genetic bases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the precise mechanisms through which genetic variations causally result in ASD are poorly understood. Individuals with 3 Mb and nested 1.5 Mb hemizygosity of the chromosome 22q11.2 represent genetically identifiable cases of ASD. However, because more than 30 genes are(More)
BACKGROUND Functional status (FS) before intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with short-term and long-term outcomes among critically ill patients. However, measures of FS are generally not integrated into ICU-specific mortality prediction models. METHODS This retrospective cohort study used prospectively collected data from 9638 consecutive(More)
A critical step toward understanding autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is to identify both genetic and environmental risk factors. A number of rare copy number variants (CNVs) have emerged as robust genetic risk factors for ASD, but not all CNV carriers exhibit ASD and the severity of ASD symptoms varies among CNV carriers. Although evidence exists that(More)
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) (MALDI-IMS) provides a technical means for simultaneous analysis of precise anatomic localization and regulation of peptides. We explored the technical capability of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for characterization of peptidomic regulation(More)
Septins are a family of GTP binding proteins that are well conserved in eukaryotic species except plants. Septins contribute to the lateral compartmentalization of membranes, cortical rigidity, and the regulation of membrane trafficking by associating with membrane lipids, actin, and microtubules. The organ of Corti in the cochlea has pivotal roles in(More)
Working memory capacity, a critical component of executive function, expands developmentally from childhood through adulthood. Anomalies in this developmental process are seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia and intellectual disabilities (ID), implicating this atypical process in the trajectory of developmental(More)