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BACKGROUND Relationships among tobacco smoking, tobacco craving, and other drug use and craving may have treatment implications in polydrug-dependent individuals. METHODS We conducted the first… (More)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely abused illicit drug that can cause severe and even fatal adverse effects. However, interest remains for its possible clinical applications in… (More)
OBJECTIVE As a biomarker of smoking, semiquantitative analysis of cotinine (NicAlert) offers several advantages over breath carbon monoxide (CO) and quantitative analysis of cotinine. Recent studies… (More)
INTRODUCTION Oral fluid collection is noninvasive and easily observed making it an attractive matrix for objectively determining smoking status. Despite large intersubject variability, cotinine oral… (More)
AIMS Many cities have banned indoor smoking in public places. Thus, an updated recommendation for a breath carbon monoxide (CO) cut-off is needed that optimally determines smoking status. We… (More)