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Pain sensitivity reflects a balance between pain facilitatory and inhibitory systems. To characterize the relationships between these systems we examined the interactions between the analgesic effects of morphine and the anti-analgesic effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). We report that administration of a neutral dose of IL-1beta(More)
Peripheral nerve injury may lead to neuropathic pain, which is often associated with mechanical and thermal allodynia, ectopic discharge of from injured nerves and from the dorsal root ganglion neurons, and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin-1 (IL-1). In the present study, we tested the role of IL-1 in neuropathic pain(More)
  • G Wolf
  • 1982
The salt appetite of the rat is useful for studying certain behavioral and neurological functions. A refined method for inducing and measuring salt appetite for these purposes is described, and the efficiency and reliability of the procedures are demonstrated by parametric studies comparing the appetite behaviors of male and female rats. The method for(More)
Many neurotransmitters involved in pain perception transmit signals via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCR kinase 2 (GRK2) regulates agonist-induced desensitization and signaling of multiple GPCRs and interacts with downstream molecules with consequences for signaling. In general, low GRK2 levels are associated with increased responses to agonist(More)
Prenatal exposure to opiates can adversely affect fetal development, resulting in long-term growth retardation and impairments in physiological and behavioral functions. In the present study we studied long-term effects of prenatal morphine exposure on immune functions, including the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and the febrile and behavioral(More)
The contact method: a simple technique for electrical self-stimulation without external leads. PHYSIOL. BEHAV. 11(S) 721-723, 1973.-Electrical currents to reward areas of the brain were administered without the use of external leads by utilizing a method conceptually similar to that of the electronic drinkometer. A wire brush connected to the intracranial(More)
The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated in modulation of pain perception under various inflammatory conditions. The present study examined the hypothesis that IL-1 signaling is also involved in pain sensitivity under normal, non-inflammatory states, using three mouse models of impaired IL-1 signaling: targeted deletion of the IL-1 receptor(More)