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Pain sensitivity reflects a balance between pain facilitatory and inhibitory systems. To characterize the relationships between these systems we examined the interactions between the analgesic effects of morphine and the anti-analgesic effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). We report that administration of a neutral dose of IL-1beta(More)
The salt appetite of the rat is useful for studying certain behavioral and neurological functions. A refined method for inducing and measuring salt appetite for these purposes is described, and the efficiency and reliability of the procedures are demonstrated by parametric studies comparing the appetite behaviors of male and female rats. The method for(More)
Many neurotransmitters involved in pain perception transmit signals via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCR kinase 2 (GRK2) regulates agonist-induced desensitization and signaling of multiple GPCRs and interacts with downstream molecules with consequences for signaling. In general, low GRK2 levels are associated with increased responses to agonist(More)
The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated in modulation of pain perception under various inflammatory conditions. The present study examined the hypothesis that IL-1 signaling is also involved in pain sensitivity under normal, non-inflammatory states, using three mouse models of impaired IL-1 signaling: targeted deletion of the IL-1 receptor(More)
Peripheral nerve injury may lead to neuropathic pain, which is often associated with mechanical and thermal allodynia, ectopic discharge of from injured nerves and from the dorsal root ganglion neurons, and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin-1 (IL-1). In the present study, we tested the role of IL-1 in neuropathic pain(More)
Postoperative incisional pain is characterized by persistent acute pain in the area of the cut, and is associated with release of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), which play important hyperalgesic and allodynic roles in various inflammatory conditions. In the present study, we tested the role of IL-1 signaling in postoperative(More)
Exposure to stressful stimuli is often accompanied by reduced pain sensitivity, termed "stress-induced analgesia" (SIA). In the present study, the hypothesis that interleukin-1 (IL-1) may play a modulatory role in SIA was examined. Two genetic mouse models impaired in IL-1-signaling and their wild-type (WT) controls were employed. Another group of C57 mice(More)
Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain state resulting from peripheral nerve injury, characterized by hyperalgesia and allodynia. We have reported that mice with genetic impairment of IL-1 signaling display attenuated neuropathic pain behavior and ectopic neuronal activity. In order to substantiate the role of IL-1 in neuropathic pain, WT mice were implanted(More)
Surgical stress is the combined result of tissue injury, anesthesia, and postoperative pain. It is characterized by elevated levels of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), corticosterone (CS), and elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the periphery and in the spinal cord. The present study examined the effects of perioperative pain management in rats(More)