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We describe here the properties of mAb GK1.5, which recognizes a cell surface molecule designated L3T4; the determinant on L3T4 recognized by mAb GK1.5 is designated L3T4a. We present evidence here that: i) the expression of L3T4a by murine T cell clones correlates primarily with class II MHC antigen-reactivity; ii) mAb GK1.5 blocks all class II MHC(More)
We have previously shown that rhesus macaques were partially protected against high-dose intravenous challenge with simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(SF162P4) following sequential immunization with alphavirus replicon particles (VRP) of a chimeric recombinant VEE/SIN alphavirus (derived from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEE] and the Sindbis(More)
Despite more than two decades of research and development on nucleic acid vaccines, there is still no commercial product for human use. Taking advantage of the recent innovations in systemic delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) using lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), we developed a self-amplifying RNA vaccine. Here we show that nonviral delivery of a 9-kb(More)
Nucleic acid-based vaccines such as viral vectors, plasmid DNA, and mRNA are being developed as a means to address a number of unmet medical needs that current vaccine technologies have been unable to address. Here, we describe a cationic nanoemulsion (CNE) delivery system developed to deliver a self-amplifying mRNA vaccine. This nonviral delivery system is(More)
DNA vaccines have been demonstrated to be potent in small animals but are less effective in primates. One limiting factor may be inefficient uptake of DNA by cells in situ. In this study, we evaluated whether cellular uptake of DNA was a significant barrier to efficient transfection in vivo and subsequent induction of immune responses. For this purpose, we(More)
Control of gene expression is important to gene therapy for purposes of both dosing and safety. In vivo regulation of gene expression was demonstrated following co-injection of two separate recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors, one encoding an inducible murine erythropoietin transgene and the other a transcriptional activator, directly into the(More)
Engagement of the antigen-specific receptor (TCR) of CD4+ T lymphocytes without a second (costimulatory) signal prevents the subsequent production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) by these cells. Because IL-2 is a key immunoregulatory lymphokine and is also produced by a subset of CD8+ T cells that are able to kill target cells, the effect of engaging the TCR of one(More)
Alphavirus replicon particle-based vaccine vectors derived from Sindbis virus (SIN), Semliki Forest virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) have been shown to induce robust antigen-specific cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses in many animal models of infectious disease and cancer. However, since little is known about the relative(More)
The potency of an HIV DNA vaccine was enhanced in rhesus macaques by in vivo electroporation, as judged by increased onset, magnitude and duration of antibody and cell-mediated immune responses against both components of a combination Gag and Env vaccine. These data demonstrate the utility of the electroporation technology for use in large animals.
A major challenge for the next generation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines is the induction of potent, broad, and durable cellular immune responses. The structural protein Gag is highly conserved among the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) gene products and is believed to be an important target for the host cell-mediated immune control of the virus during(More)