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We have recently demonstrated that a non-polymorphic rhoptry antigen, RAP-1 (rhoptry associated protein-1), which is recognised by human immune serum, can successfully protect Saimiri monkeys from a lethal infection of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. In this report we further characterise the antigen, which consists of four major proteins of 80, 65, 42 and(More)
The development of biologic therapeutics using advanced technology to copy and improve on nature's design of complex peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins has enabled the treatment of diseases in entirely new ways and brought unique and lifesaving treatments to many people. However, at least in part because of cost pressures, access to these truly amazing(More)
The molecular forms and antigenic heterogeneity of the leukocyte-common antigen (L-CA) of rat lymphocytes have been analyzed. Thymocytes show one main band at 180 kDa, T cells four bands at 180, 190, 200 and 220 kDa and B cells one broad band at about 240 kDa. T helper and T cytotoxic cell subsets show the same four bands with some differences in the(More)
A mouse monoclonal antibody (MRC OX-22) is described that labels rat T cells which mediate graft-versus-host reactions and those responsible for the suppression of antibody synthesis in hosts undergoing these reactions. In contrast, most of the T cells that provide help for B cells are MRC OX-22 negative. These results, taken together with those published(More)
The first human vaccines against the malaria parasite have been designed to elicit antibodies to the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum. However, it is not known whether any level of naturally acquired antibodies to the circumsporozoite protein can predict resistance to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. In this study, 83 adults in a(More)
A Plasmodium falciparum protein which is exported into a new compartment in the host erythrocyte has been located. This protein, exp-1, has a variable region recognized by a monoclonal antibody. Naturally occurring mutants of this region have been characterized. All mutants studied so far have the same A----G transition abolishing the target for the(More)
Irradiated sporozoites are generally thought to elicit protective immune responses that are parasite stage and species specific. But immunization with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites delivered by the bite of infected mosquitoes protects an average of 60% mice from Plasmodium berghei sporozoite infection. Protection appears to be specific as P. falciparum(More)
Experts debate the clinical evidence standards needed to approve major manufacturing changes for biologics, biosimilars, and interchangeable biosimilars. As sponsors consider their development plans, the resource investment required to develop an analytically highly similar candidate must be balanced by regulatory relief for the clinical studies required to(More)
The leucocyte-common antigen (L-CA) from rat thymocytes is a cell surface glycoprotein of 180 000 apparent mol. wt. with an 80-kd cytoplasmic domain. This paper reports the molecular dimensions of the molecule visualised by electron microscopy after low-angle shadowing. The L-CA monomer consists of a globular head region of approximately 12 nm diameter and(More)