Gillian Manning

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When it is required to establish a materially significant difference between two treatments, or, alternatively, to show that two treatments are equivalent, standard test statistics and sample size formulae based on a null hypothesis of no difference no longer apply. This paper reviews some of the test statistics and sample size formulae proposed for(More)
The effects of the antiangiogenic cytokine PEDF on key steps in retinal angiogenesis, specifically endothelial cell proliferation and vascular tubule formation, and the regulation of PEDF expression in retinal capillary endothelial cells were evaluated. HUVECs were co-cultured with fibroblasts to construct a model of angiogenesis using the Angiokit assay,(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of posture, endothelial function and venous insufficiency on cutaneous microvascular vasodilator function in the gaiter area, in particular defining factors which may affect microangiopathy and ulcer formation. METHODS Endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilator responses to incremental-doses of acetylcholine (Ach)(More)
BACKGROUND Graduate entry medicine is a recent innovation in UK medical training. Evidence is sparse at present as to progress and attainment on these programmes. Shared clinical rotations, between an established 5-year and a new graduate entry course, provide the opportunity to compare achievement on clinical assessments. To compare completion and(More)
AILTHOUGH a number of reports have IA~kappeared in the literature describing nonspecific S-T and T-wave changes in the electrocardiogram associated with neuromuscular disorders' electrolyte disturbances, hypoxemia, postprandial effects, etc., relatively few have appeared describing electrocardiographic changes, associated with intracranial hemorrhage. In(More)
Microalbuminuria (defined as an albumin-creatinine ratio of 10-25 mg/mmol on the first-morning urine sample, or an albumin excretion rate of 20-200 microg/min on a timed collection) is present in 20-30% of all patients with type 2 diabetes, and is especially common in those with hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and other features of insulin resistance.(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effects of varicose vein surgery on cutaneous microvascular perfusion and vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in the gaiter area of patients with great saphenous vein insufficiency. METHODS Twenty-nine patients with isolated great saphenous vein incompetence attended three study mornings(More)
Achieving target levels of office and/or ambulatory blood pressure readings among treated hypertensive patients is an important aspect of cardiovascular disease prevention. Although office blood pressure measurement is simple and convenient, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is especially useful for identifying patients with 'white coat' hypertension, in(More)