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Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in developed countries. To identify common breast cancer susceptibility alleles, we conducted a genome-wide association study in which 582,886 SNPs were genotyped in 3,659 cases with a family history of the disease and 4,897 controls. Promising associations were evaluated in a second stage, comprising 12,576(More)
Germline mutation of the BRCA2 gene carries a high risk of developing breast cancer. To study the function of this gene, we generated a mutation in Brca2 in mice. Unlike other mutations in the Brca2 gene, which are lethal early in embryogenesis when homozygous, some of our homozygous mutant mice survive to adulthood. These animals have a wide range of(More)
BACKGROUND Genome-wide association studies have identified several common genetic variants associated with breast cancer risk. It is likely, however, that a substantial proportion of such loci have not yet been discovered. METHODS We compared 296,114 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 1694 breast cancer case subjects (92% with two primary cancers(More)
Loss of p53 function has been shown to cause increased resistance to ionizing radiation in normal murine cells; however, the role of p53 in radioresistance of human tumor cells is less clear. Since wild-type p53 function is required for radiation-induced G1 arrest, we measured G1 arrest in 12 human tumor cell lines that have a wide range of(More)
The breast cancer predisposition gene BRCA2 encodes a protein involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, which arise spontaneously and following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). To develop a mouse model that examines the effect of BRCA2 mutation and IR exposure on in vivo somatic mutation acquisition, we crossed mice with targeted disruption of(More)
Although substantial progress has been made in the management of Hodgkin's lymphoma during the past 30 years, the development of secondary malignant diseases has emerged as a serious consequence of treatment. In particular, extended follow-up of patients with Hodgkin's disease has revealed an increased risk of breast cancer. We have systematically reviewed(More)
Women heterozygous for mutations in the breast-cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 have a highly elevated risk of developing breast cancer [1]. BRCA1 and BRCA2 encode large proteins with no sequence similarity to one another. Although involvement in DNA repair and transcription has been suggested, it is still not understood how loss of function of(More)
Ionising radiation remains one of the most effective tools in the therapy of cancer. It combines the properties of an extremely efficient DNA-damaging agent with a high degree of spatial specificity. Nonetheless, there remain considerable differences in the outcome for treatment of tumours of differing histological type treated by radiotherapy. Tumours(More)
The aromatase enzyme converts androgens to estrogens and is the therapeutic target for aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal patients with estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. Third-generation inhibitors such as letrozole are being considered as potential prophylactic agents for breast cancer. The rationale for their preventive application(More)
The development of rapid assays of radiation-induced DNA damage requires the definition of reliable parameters for the evaluation of dose-response relationships to compare with cellular endpoints. We have used the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or 'comet' assay to measure DNA damage in individual cells after irradiation. Both the alkaline and(More)