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The sparse distributed memory (SDM) was originally developed to tackle the problem of storing large binary data patterns. The model succeeded well in storing random input data. However, its efficiency, particularly in handling nonrandom data, was poor. In its original form it is a static and inflexible system. Most of the recent work on the SDM has(More)
In vivo levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6, present in the interstitial spaces of brain, have been repeatedly monitored up to 7 days after insertion of a microdialysis probe, designed to induce mechanical trauma to the brain. IL-1 is barely detectable immediately after implantation but over a 24-48 h period a 15-fold increase is seen. In contrast IL-6(More)
A method has been developed to isolate microglia from adult human and rat brain cell suspensions by rosette formation via Fc receptors. Immunocytochemical characterisation of the cells immediately following isolation and after 7-10 days in vitro with a panel of monoclonal antibodies has demonstrated that microglia from adult brain have the phenotypic(More)
In normal human white matter the predominant cell type expressing MHC Class II is the microglia. This population of cells reacts with the pan macrophage marker, EBM/11, and constitutes about 13% of the glial cell population. The intensity of staining was enhanced and the absolute number of Class II+ microglia increased in normal appearing white matter from(More)
Postmortem unfixed whole brains from 17 multiple sclerosis and 6 control cases were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a T2-weighted spin echo sequence and histology to determine the relationship between areas of abnormal MRI signal and underlying pathological change. In group 1, small MRI lesions and correspondingly small plaques, most of(More)
This paper introduces an integration of reinforcement learning and behavior-based control designed to produce real-time learning in situated agents. The model layers a distributed and asynchronous reinforcement learning algorithm over a learned topological map and standard behavioral substrate to create a reinforcement learning complex. The topological map(More)
Previous studies on beta-amyloid production have been carried out using transfected cells and cell lines. We measured the 40 and 42 amino acid forms of beta-amyloid released into the culture medium by primary human foetal mixed brain cell aggregate culture over 3 months. In this model, neurones and supporting cells are maintained in serum-free defined(More)
2 Abstract This paper introduces a formalization of the dynamics between sensorimotor interaction and home-ostasis, integrated in a single architecture to learn object affordances of consummatory behaviours. We also describe the principles necessary to learn grounded knowledge in the context of an agent and its surrounding environment, which we use to(More)
This paper introduces a novel study on the sense of valency as a vital process for achieving adaptation in agents through evolution and developmental learning. Unlike previous studies, we hypothesise that behaviour-related information must be underspecified in the genes and that additional mechanisms such as valency modulate final behavioural responses.(More)