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Glutathione transferases (GSTs) of a novel class, which it is proposed to term Theta, were purified from rat and human liver. Two, named GST 5-5 and GST 12-12, were obtained from the rat, and one, named GST theta, was from the human. Unlike other mammalian GSTs they lack activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and are not retained by GSH affinity(More)
During flagellum assembly by motile enterobacteria, flagellar axial proteins destined for polymerization into the cell surface structure are thought to be exported through the 25-30 A flagellum central channel as partially unfolded monomers. How are premature folding and oligomerization in the cytosol prevented? We have shown previously using(More)
Nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) are global regulators of gene expression in Escherichia coli, which affect DNA conformation by bending, wrapping and bridging the DNA. Two of these--H-NS and Fis--bind to specific DNA sequences and structures. Because of their importance to global gene expression, the binding of these NAPs to the DNA was previously(More)
Assembly of the long helical filament of the bacterial flagellum requires polymerisation of ca 20,000 flagellin (FliC) monomeric subunits into the growing structure extending from the cell surface. Here, we show that export of Salmonella flagellin is facilitated specifically by a cytosolic protein, FliS, and that FliS binds to the FliC C-terminal helical(More)
The flagellar proteins FlgN and FliT have been proposed to act as substrate-specific export chaperones, facilitating incorporation of the enterobacterial hook-associated axial proteins (HAPs) FlgK/FlgL and FliD into the growing flagellum. In Salmonella typhimurium flgN and fliT mutants, the export of target HAPs was reduced, concomitant with loss of(More)
The nuclear/cytoplasmic distributions of the GSH and N-acetylcysteine conjugates of monochlorobimane (MCB) have been studied in rat hepatocytes in primary culture after microinjection into the cytoplasm. The immediately occurring fluorescence (within 1-2 s) in the nucleus was much greater than that in the cytoplasm. Other water-soluble fluorescent markers(More)
Organisms must adapt to make optimal use of the metabolic system in response to environmental changes. In the long-term, this involves evolution of the genomic repertoire of enzymes; in the short-term, transcriptional control ensures that appropriate enzymes are expressed in response to transitory extracellular conditions. Unicellular organisms are(More)
Cyclic-di-GMP is a bacterial second messenger that controls the switch between motile and sessile states. It is synthesized by proteins containing the enzymatic GGDEF domain and degraded by the EAL domain. Many bacterial genomes encode several copies of proteins containing these domains, raising questions on how the activities of parallel c-di-GMP(More)
The Proteus mirabilis flagellum class I flhDC operon was isolated, and its transcript was shown to originate from a sigma70 promoter 244 bp 5' of flhD and 29 bp 3' of a putative cyclic AMP receptor protein-binding site. Expression of this regulatory master operon increased strongly as cells differentiated into elongated hyperflagellated swarm filaments, and(More)
DNA cytosine methylation regulates gene expression in mammals. In bacteria, its role in gene expression and genome architecture is less understood. Here we perform high-throughput sequencing of bisulfite-treated genomic DNA from Escherichia coli K12 to describe, for the first time, the extent of cytosine methylation of bacterial DNA at single-base(More)