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Nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) are global regulators of gene expression in Escherichia coli, which affect DNA conformation by bending, wrapping and bridging the DNA. Two of these--H-NS and Fis--bind to specific DNA sequences and structures. Because of their importance to global gene expression, the binding of these NAPs to the DNA was previously(More)
Organisms must adapt to make optimal use of the metabolic system in response to environmental changes. In the long-term, this involves evolution of the genomic repertoire of enzymes; in the short-term, transcriptional control ensures that appropriate enzymes are expressed in response to transitory extracellular conditions. Unicellular organisms are(More)
The Proteus mirabilis flagellum class I flhDC operon was isolated, and its transcript was shown to originate from a sigma70 promoter 244 bp 5' of flhD and 29 bp 3' of a putative cyclic AMP receptor protein-binding site. Expression of this regulatory master operon increased strongly as cells differentiated into elongated hyperflagellated swarm filaments, and(More)
The specialised signal recognition particle family guanosine 5c-triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein FlhF is required for the correct localisation of flagella in several bacterial species. Here, we characterise the regions of Vibrio cholerae FlhF that are required for its function and targeting to the old cell pole, and we present evidence for a mechanism by(More)
Transcriptional regulatory systems play a central role in coordinating bacterial responses to diverse stimuli. These systems can be studied in progressive stages: from input signals to the final output. At the input stage, transcription factors (TFs) can be classified by their activation from endogenous or exogenous stimuli; in Escherichia coli, up to(More)
IHF and HU are two heterodimeric nucleoid-associated proteins (NAP) that belong to the same protein family but interact differently with the DNA. IHF is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that bends the DNA by over 160°. HU is the most conserved NAP, which binds non-specifically to duplex DNA with a particular preference for targeting nicked and bent(More)
The bacterial flagellum assembles in a strict order, with structural subunits delivered to the growing flagellum by a type III export pathway. Early rod-and-hook subunits are exported before completion of the hook, at which point a subunit-specificity switch allows export of late filament subunits. This implies that in bacteria with multiple flagella at(More)
Cyclic-di-GMP is a bacterial second messenger that controls the switch between motile and sessile states. It is synthesized by proteins containing the enzymatic GGDEF domain and degraded by the EAL domain. Many bacterial genomes encode several copies of proteins containing these domains, raising questions on how the activities of parallel c-di-GMP(More)
The HpmA haemolysin toxin of Proteus mirabilis is encoded by the hpmBA locus and its production is upregulated co-ordinately with the synthesis and assembly of flagella during differentiation into hyperflagellated swarm cells. Primer extension identified a sigma(70) promoter upstream of hpmB that was upregulated during swarming. Northern blotting indicated(More)
Bacteria swim by means of long flagella extending from the cell surface. These are assembled from thousands of protein subunits translocated across the cell membrane by an export machinery at the base of each flagellum. Unfolded subunits then transit through a narrow channel at the core of the growing flagellum to the tip, where they crystallize into the(More)