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Effective long-term antiviral immunity requires specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD4(+) T lymphocyte help. Failure of these helper responses can be a principle cause of viral persistence. We sought evidence that variation in HIV-1 CD4(+) T helper epitopes might contribute to this phenomenon. To determine this, we assayed fresh peripheral blood(More)
Human and animal model evidence suggests that CD4+ T cells play a critical role in the control of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, despite their importance, the mechanism behind the failure of such populations in chronic disease is not understood and the contribution of viral mutation is not known. To address this, this study defined the(More)
Blood donors are routinely screened for hepatitis C virus infection. Some individuals have weak or restricted virus-specific antibody responses, and are classed as indeterminate. Such donors are almost always negative for viral RNA in blood. We postulated that previous transient virus exposure might account for some of these cases. With sensitive ex-vivo(More)
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