Gillian A. AvRuskin

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BACKGROUND: Recent years have seen an expansion in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in environmental health research. In this field GIS can be used to detect disease clustering, to analyze access to hospital emergency care, to predict environmental outbreaks, and to estimate exposure to toxic compounds. Despite these advances the inability of(More)
Arsenic in drinking water has been linked with the risk of urinary bladder cancer, but the dose–response relationships for arsenic exposures below 100 μg/L remain equivocal. We conducted a population-based case–control study in southeastern Michigan, USA, where approximately 230,000 people were exposed to arsenic concentrations between 10 and 100 μg/L. This(More)
OBJECTIVES A space-time information system (STIS) based method is introduced for calculating individual-level estimates of inorganic arsenic exposure over the adult life-course. STIS enables visualization and analysis of space-time data, overcoming some of the constraints inherent to spatial-only Geographic Information System software. The power of this new(More)
Toenails were used recently in epidemiological and environmental health studies as a means of assessing exposure to arsenic from drinking water. While positive correlations between toenail and drinking-water arsenic concentrations were reported in the literature, a significant percentage of the variation in toenail arsenic concentration remains unexplained(More)
A thorough assessment of human exposure to environmental agents should incorporate mobility patterns and temporal changes in human behaviors and concentrations of contaminants; yet the temporal dimension is often under-emphasized in exposure assessment endeavors, due in part to insufficient tools for visualizing and examining temporal datasets.(More)
OBJECTIVE Arsenic is a pervasive contaminant in underground aquifers worldwide, yet documentation of health effects associated with low-to-moderate concentrations (<100microg/L) has been stymied by uncertainties in assessing long-term exposure. A critical component of assessing exposure to arsenic in drinking water is the development of models for(More)
BACKGROUND Methods for analyzing space-time variation in risk in case-control studies typically ignore residential mobility. We develop an approach for analyzing case-control data for mobile individuals and apply it to study bladder cancer in 11 counties in southeastern Michigan. At this time data collection is incomplete and no inferences should be drawn -(More)
A key problem facing epidemiologists who wish to account for residential mobility in their analyses is the cost and difficulty of obtaining residential histories. Commercial residential history data of acceptable accuracy, cost, and coverage would be of great value. The present research evaluated the accuracy of residential histories from LexisNexis, Inc.(More)
[1] During the last decade one has witnessed an increasing interest in assessing health risks caused by exposure to contaminants present in the soil, air, and water. A key component of any exposure study is a reliable model for the space-time distribution of pollutants. This paper compares the performances of multi-Gaussian and indicator kriging for(More)
BACKGROUND Racial disparities in survival from breast and prostate cancer are well established; however, the roles of societal/socioeconomic factors and innate/genetic factors in explaining the disparities remain unclear. One approach for evaluating the relative importance of societal and innate factors is to quantify how the magnitude of racial disparities(More)