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We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. More than 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event; about 8000 pairs of(More)
Benzodioxane structures are produced in lignins of transgenic poplar plants deficient in COMT, anO-methyltransferase required to produce lignin syringyl units. They result from incorporation of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol into the monomer supply and confirm that phenols other than the three traditional monolignols can be integrated into plant lignins.
PTLF, the Populus trichocarpa homolog of LEAFY (LFY) and FLORICAULA, was cloned to assess its function in a dioecious tree species. In situ hybridization studies showed that the gene was expressed most strongly in developing inflorescences. Expression was also seen in leaf primordia and very young leaves, most notably in apical vegetative buds near(More)
Studying lignin-biosynthetic-pathway mutants and transgenics provides insights into plant responses to perturbations of the lignification system, and enhances our understanding of normal lignification. When enzymes late in the pathway are downregulated, significant changes in the composition and structure of lignin may result. NMR spectroscopy provides(More)
Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) catalyzes the penultimate step in monolignol biosynthesis. We show that downregulation of CCR in transgenic poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) was associated with up to 50% reduced lignin content and an orange-brown, often patchy, coloration of the outer xylem. Thioacidolysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR),(More)
Six Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. x P. nigra L. genotypes were selected to investigate whether stem xylem anatomy correlated with gas exchange rates, water-use efficiency (WUE) and growth performance. Clonal copies of the genotypes were grown in a two-plot common garden test under contrasting water regimes, with one plot maintained irrigated and the(More)
Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) which catalyses the synthesis of the cinnamyl alcohols, the immediate precursors of lignins, from the corresponding cinnamaldehydes is considered to be a highly specific marker for lignification. We have isolated and characterized a CAD genomic clone from eucalyptus, a woody species of economic importance. The(More)
In Eukaryotes, LIM proteins act as developmental regulators in basic cellular processes such as regulating the transcription or organizing the cytoskeleton. The LIM domain protein family in plants has mainly been studied in sunflower and tobacco plants, where several of its members exhibit a specific pattern of expression in pollen. In this paper, we finely(More)
The agronomic and pulping performance of transgenic trees with altered lignin has been evaluated in duplicated, long-term field trials. Poplars expressing cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) or caffeate/5-hydroxy-ferulate O-methyltransferase (COMT) antisense transgenes were grown for four years at two sites, in France and England. The trees remained(More)
Molecular marker compounds, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) deficiency in angiosperms have been structurally identified as indene derivatives. They are shown to derive from hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes that have undergone 8-O-4-cross-coupling during lignification. As such, they are valuable(More)