Gilles Mithieux

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Metformin is widely used to treat hyperglycemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Recently the LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase (LKB1/AMPK) pathway was proposed to mediate the action of metformin on hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism by which this pathway operates had remained elusive. Surprisingly, here we have found that in mice(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Glucose-6 phosphatase (Glc6Pase) is the last enzyme of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, previously assumed to be expressed in the liver and kidney only, conferring on both tissues the capacity to produce endogenous glucose in blood. METHODS Using Northern blotting and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and a highly(More)
Unlike the adjustable gastric banding procedure (AGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) in humans has an intriguing effect: a rapid and substantial control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We performed gastric lap-band (GLB) and entero-gastro anastomosis (EGA) procedures in C57Bl6 mice that were fed a high-fat diet. The EGA procedure specifically(More)
BACKGROUND Leucine supplementation might have therapeutic potential in preventing diet-induced obesity and improving insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are at present unclear. Additionally, it is unclear whether leucine supplementation might be equally efficacious once obesity has developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Male(More)
At variance with the current view that only liver and kidney are gluconeogenic organs, because both are the only tissues to express glucose-6-phosphatase (Glc6Pase), we have recently demonstrated that the Glc6Pase gene is expressed in the small intestine in rats and humans and that it is induced in insulinopenic states such as fasting and diabetes. We used(More)
Soluble dietary fibers promote metabolic benefits on body weight and glucose control, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Recent evidence indicates that intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN) has beneficial effects on glucose and energy homeostasis. Here, we show that the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) propionate and butyrate, which are generated by(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Glycogen storage disease type 1a (GSD1a) is an inherited disease caused by a deficiency in the catalytic subunit of the glucose-6 phosphatase enzyme (G6Pase). GSD1a is characterized by hypoglycaemia, hyperlipidemia, and lactic acidosis with associated hepatic (including hepatocellular adenomas), renal, and intestinal disorders. A total(More)
PEPCK is a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis in liver and kidney. Recently, we have shown that small intestine also contributes to the endogenous glucose production in insulinopenia in rats and that glutamine is the main precursor of glucose synthesized in this tissue. The expression of the PEPCK gene in rat and human small intestine and the effect of(More)
The GK rat model of type 2 diabetes is especially convenient to dissect the pathogenic mechanism necessary for the emergence of overt diabetes because all adult rats obtained in our department (GK/Par colony) to date have stable basal mild hyperglycemia and because overt diabetes is preceded by a period of normoglycemia, ranging from birth to weaning. The(More)
Oxidative stress is recognized as an important factor in the development of liver pathologies. The reactive oxygen species endogenously generated or as a consequence of xenobiotic metabolism are eliminated by enzymatic and nonenzymatic cellular systems. Besides endogen defences, the antioxidant consumption in the diet has an important role in the protection(More)