Gilles J Guillemin

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Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by environmental xenobiotic toxic chemicals, for instance 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as embryogenesis, transformation, tumorigenesis and inflammation. But the identity of an endogenous ligand activating the AHR under physiological(More)
Immune dysfunction, including monocytosis and increased blood levels of interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor α has been observed during acute episodes of major depression. These peripheral immune processes may be accompanied by microglial activation in subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex where depression-associated alterations of(More)
The cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) has emerged as a key regulator of metabolism, stress resistance and longevity. Apart from its role as an important redox carrier, NAD+ also serves as the sole substrate for NAD-dependent enzymes, including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), an important DNA nick sensor, and NAD-dependent histone(More)
Over the last two decades, evidence for the involvement of quinolinic acid (QUIN) in neuroinflammatory diseases has been exponentially increasing. Within the brain, QUIN is produced and released by infiltrating macrophages and activated microglia, the very cells that are prominent during neuroinflammation. QUIN acts as an agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate(More)
The phenotypic differentiation of systemic macrophages that have infiltrated the central nervous system, pericytes, perivascular macrophages, and the "real" resident microglial cells is a major immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical concern for all users of cultures of brain cells and brain sections. It is not only important in assessing the purity of(More)
There is good evidence that the kynurenine pathway (KP) and one of its end products, quinolinic acid (QUIN) play a role in the pathogenesis of several major neurological diseases. While QUIN has been shown to be produced in neurotoxic concentrations by macrophages and microglia, the capacity of astrocytes and neurons to produce QUIN is controversial. Using(More)
The kynurenine pathway is a major route of L-tryptophan catabolism producing neuroactive metabolites implicated in neurodegeneration and immune tolerance. We characterized the kynurenine pathway in human neurons and the human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell line and found that the kynurenine pathway enzymes were variably expressed. Picolinic carboxylase was(More)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is an essential electron transporter in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. In genomic DNA, NAD(+) also represents the sole substrate for the nuclear repair enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and the sirtuin family of NAD-dependent histone deacetylases. Age associated increases in(More)
Chemokines are key mediators of the selective migration of leukocytes that occurs in neurodegenerative diseases and related inflammatory processes. Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the CNS, have an active role in brain inflammation. To ascertain the role of astrocytes during neuropathological processes, we have investigated in two models of(More)
Maintenance of an adequate supply of cholesterol is important for neuronal function, whereas excess cholesterol promotes amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage generating toxic amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides. To gain insights into the pathways that regulate neuronal cholesterol level, we investigated the potential for reconstituted apolipoprotein E (apoE)(More)