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Evolution of species has led to the appearance of circulatory systems including blood vessels and one or more pulsatile pumps, typically resulting in a low-pressurised open circulation in most invertebrates and a high-pressurised closed circulation in vertebrates. In both open and closed circulations, the large elastic arteries proximal to the heart damp(More)
Obstructive vascular disease is an important health problem in the industrialized world. Through a series of molecular genetic studies, we demonstrated that loss-of-function mutations in one elastin allele cause an inherited obstructive arterial disease, supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). To define the mechanism of elastin's effect, we generated mice(More)
Elastin peptides are present in human blood. As elastin receptors exist on several cell types, especially endothelial cells, this investigation was carried out to study the effect of elastin peptides on vascular tone. For this purpose, rat aortic rings were mounted in an organ bath for isometric tension measurements. Elastin peptides (kappa-elastin) were(More)
Rhamnose-rich oligo- and polysaccharides (RROPs) were tested for their potential pharmacological properties using human skin fibroblasts in serial cultures. The substances tested were shown to stimulate cell proliferation, decrease elastase-type activity, stimulate collagen biosynthesis, and protect hyaluronan against free radical mediated degradation.(More)
—The elastic properties of extensible tissues such as arteries and skin are mainly due to the presence of elastic fibers whose major component is the extracellular matrix protein elastin. Pathophysiological degradation of this protein leads to the generation of elastin peptides that have been identified in the circulation in the ng/mL to ␮g/mL range.(More)
1. We have tested the effects of 2 month oral treatment with the KATP opener, nitric oxide (NO) donor and anti-oxidant molecule nicorandil (0.1 mg/kg per day) on major physiological parameters and heart function of 4-, 12- and 24-month-old rats. 2. Several methods were used: (i) measurement of blood pressure using a non-invasive tail-cuff method; (ii)(More)
The extracellular matrix protein "elastin" is the major component of elastic fibers present in the arterial wall. Physiological degradation of elastic fibers, enhanced in vascular pathologies, leads to the presence of circulating elastin peptides (EP). EP have been demonstrated to influence cell migration and proliferation. EP also induce, at circulating(More)
OBJECTIVE Even though elastin and fibrillin-1 are the major structural components of elastic fibers, mutations in elastin and fibrillin-1 lead to narrowing of large arteries in supravalvular aortic stenosis and dilation of the ascending aorta in Marfan syndrome, respectively. A genetic approach was therefore used here to distinguish the differential(More)
Supravalvular aortic stenosis is an autosomal-dominant disease of elastin (Eln) insufficiency caused by loss-of-function mutations or gene deletion. Recently, we have modeled this disease in mice (Eln+/-) and found that Eln haploinsufficiency results in unexpected changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics and arterial wall structure. Eln+/- animals were found(More)
Elastin, the main component of elastic fibers, is synthesized only in early life and provides the blood vessels with their elastic properties. With aging, elastin is progressively degraded, leading to arterial enlargement, stiffening, and dysfunction. Also, elastin is a key regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration during(More)