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An abstract syntax tree (AST) interpreter is a simple and natural way to implement a programming language. However, it is also considered the slowest approach because of the high overhead of virtual method dispatch. Language implementers therefore define bytecodes to speed up interpretation, at the cost of introducing inflexible and hard to maintain(More)
Building high-performance virtual machines is a complex and expensive undertaking; many popular languages still have low-performance implementations. We describe a new approach to virtual machine (VM) construction that amortizes much of the effort in initial construction by allowing new languages to be implemented with modest additional effort. The approach(More)
Speculative optimizations are used in most Just In Time (JIT) compilers in order to take advantage of dynamic runtime feedback. These speculative optimizations usually require the compiler to produce meta-data that the Virtual Machine (VM) can use as fallback when a speculation fails. This meta-data can be large and incurs a significant memory overhead(More)
Java Virtual Machines are optimized for performing well on traditional Java benchmarks, which consist almost exclusively of code generated by the Java source compiler (javac). Code generated by compilers for other languages has not received nearly as much attention, which results in performance problems for those languages. One important specimen of(More)
When building a compiler for a high-level language, certain intrinsic features of the language must be expressed in terms of the resulting low-level operations. Complex features are often expressed by explicitly weaving together bits of low-level IR, a process that is tedious, error prone, difficult to read, difficult to reason about, and machine dependent.(More)
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