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We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of breast cancer by genotyping 528,173 SNPs in 1,145 postmenopausal women of European ancestry with invasive breast cancer and 1,142 controls. We identified four SNPs in intron 2 of FGFR2 (which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase and is amplified or overexpressed in some breast cancers) that were highly(More)
All cancers carry somatic mutations. The patterns of mutation in cancer genomes reflect the DNA damage and repair processes to which cancer cells and their precursors have been exposed. To explore these mechanisms further, we generated catalogs of somatic mutation from 21 breast cancers and applied mathematical methods to extract mutational signatures of(More)
Cancer evolves dynamically as clonal expansions supersede one another driven by shifting selective pressures, mutational processes, and disrupted cancer genes. These processes mark the genome, such that a cancer's life history is encrypted in the somatic mutations present. We developed algorithms to decipher this narrative and applied them to 21 breast(More)
Nod2 activates the NF-kappaB pathway following intracellular stimulation by bacterial products. Recently, mutations in Nod2 have been shown to be associated with Crohn's disease, suggesting a role for bacteria-host interactions in the etiology of this disorder. We show here that Nod2 is a general sensor of peptidoglycan through the recognition of muramyl(More)
Recently, common variants on human chromosome 8q24 were found to be associated with prostate cancer risk. While conducting a genome-wide association study in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility project with 550,000 SNPs in a nested case-control study (1,172 cases and 1,157 controls of European origin), we identified a new association at 8q24 with(More)
CARD15/NOD2 encodes a protein involved in bacterial recognition by monocytes. Mutations in CARD15 have recently been found in patients with Crohn disease (CD), a chronic inflammatory condition of the digestive tract. Here, we report the mutational analyses of CARD15 in 453 patients with CD, including 166 sporadic and 287 familial cases, 159 patients with(More)
We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study of natural hair color in more than 10,000 men and women of European ancestry from the United States and Australia. An initial analysis of 528,173 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on 2,287 women identified IRF4 and SLC24A4 as loci highly associated with hair color, along with three(More)
We followed our initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 527,869 SNPs on 1,172 individuals with prostate cancer and 1,157 controls of European origin-nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial prospective study-by testing 26,958 SNPs in four independent studies (total of 3,941 cases and 3,964 controls). In the(More)