Gilles Clement

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Adaptation of motor control to weightlessness was studied during a 7-day spaceflight. The maintenance of control of upright posture was examined during a voluntary raising movement of the arm and during the voluntary raising on tiptoe. In order to evaluate the contribution of visual cues, three types of visual situations were examined: normal vision,(More)
The conserved Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase forms high molecular mass complexes and is a major regulator of cellular adaptations to environmental cues. The Lethal with Sec Thirteen 8/G protein β subunit-like (LST8/GβL) protein is a member of the TOR complexes, and two putative LST8 genes are present in Arabidopsis thaliana, of which only one (LST8-1) is(More)
During the 1998 Neurolab mission (STS-90), four astronauts were exposed to interaural and head vertical (dorsoventral) linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g during constant velocity rotation on a centrifuge, both on Earth and during orbital space flight. Subjects were oriented either left-ear-out or right-ear-out (Gy centrifugation), or lay supine along the(More)
Adaptation of static posture was studied before, during, and after a 7-day space flight. Body segment orientations, body stability, and muscle activity underlying the reproduction of several postural attitudes were examined in various visual situations either with the shoes attached to the floor or during free floating. In standing or relaxed subjects whose(More)
1.Unilateral habituation of the vestibuloocular reflex was produced in adult cats stimulated by repeated unidirectional velocity steps (vestibular training) or by a continuously moving visual surround (optokinetic training). — 2. Unidirectional vestibular training produced a strong asymmetry of vestibuloocular responses (VOR). Responses to velocity steps(More)
It has been proposed that an internal representation of body vertical has a prominent role in spatial orientation. This investigation investigated the ability of human subjects to accurately locate their longitudinal body axis (an imaginary straight body midline running from head to toes) while free-floating in microgravity. Subjects were tested in-flight,(More)
Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) was measured in human subjects before, during and after exposure to microgravity induced by either parabolic flight or space flight. The downward (slow phase up) OKN gain was greater than upward gain in normal gravity. On first exposure to microgravity this asymmetry was reversed. In addition, the beating field of OKN tended to(More)
Linking plant phenotype to gene and protein expression and also to metabolite synthesis and accumulation is one of the main challenges for improving agricultural production worldwide. Such a challenge is particularly relevant to crop nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Here, the differences in leaf gene transcript, protein, and metabolite accumulation in maize(More)
In higher plants, soluble sugars are mainly present as sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Sugar allocation is based on both source-to-sink transport and intracellular transport between the different organelles and depends on actual plant requirements. Under abiotic stress conditions, such as nitrogen limitation, carbohydrates accumulate in plant cells. Despite(More)
Horizontal and vertical OKN and OKAN were recorded in four conditions using the EOG technique. Instructions to subjects were aimed at obtaining a “look” type OKN. Two optokinetic stimulators, a stationary sphere and a binocular portable model, were compared with the subject in the upright condition. Three posture orientations, upright, 90° roll(More)