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Finding modules, or clusters, in networks currently attracts much attention in several domains. The most studied criterion for doing so, due to Newman and Girvan [Phys. Rev. E 69, 026113 (2004)], is modularity maximization. Many heuristics have been proposed for maximizing modularity and yield rapidly near optimal solution or sometimes optimal ones but(More)
The recently developed Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) metaheuristic for combinatorial and global optimization is outlined together with its specialization to the problem of finding extremal graphs with respect to one or more invariants and the corresponding program (AGX). We illustrate the potential of the VNS algorithm on the example of energy E, a(More)
Given a set of m observations on n variables, an 0(mn 2) algorithm is proposed to find a basis of all affine relations between these variables satisfied by the observations. On a 25 variables example, this new algorithm is 130 000 times faster than the "all subsets" option for linear regression of the SAS package which is a non polynomial alternative.(More)
An edge-coloring of a graph G1⁄4 ðV ; EÞ is a function c that assigns an integer c(e) (called color) in f 0;1;2;...g to every edge eAE so that adjacent edges are assigned different colors. An edge-coloring is compact if the colors of the edges incident to every vertex form a set of consecutive integers. The deficiency problem is to determine the minimum(More)