Gilbert M. Smith

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Sex chromosome dosage compensation balances homogametic sex chromosome expression with autosomal expression in the heterogametic sex, leading to sex chromosome expression parity between the sexes. If compensation is incomplete, this can lead to expression imbalance and sex-biased gene expression. Recent work has uncovered an intriguing and variable pattern(More)
The cactophilic fly Drosophila mojavensis exhibits considerable intraspecific genetic structure across allopatric geographic regions and shows associations with different host cactus species across its range. The divergence between these populations has been studied for more than 60years, yet their exact historical relationships have not been resolved. We(More)
Epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation play important biological roles in gene expression regulation and cellular differentiation during development. To examine whether DNA methylation patterns are potentially associated with naturally occurring phenotypic differences, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation within Gasterosteus aculeatus, using reduced(More)
Ecological speciation occurs with the adaptation of populations to different environments and concurrent evolution of reproductive isolation. Phenotypic plasticity might influence both ecological adaptation and reproductive traits. We examined environment-specific gene expression and male mating success in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis using(More)
Vision is energetically costly to maintain. Consequently, over time many cave-adapted species downregulate the expression of vision genes or even lose their eyes and associated eye genes entirely. Alternatively, organisms that live in fluctuating environments, with different requirements for vision at different times, may evolve phenotypic plasticity for(More)
CRAL_TRIO domain proteins are known to bind small lipophilic molecules such as retinal, inositol and Vitamin E and include such gene family members as PINTA, α-tocopherol transfer (ATT) proteins, retinoid binding proteins, and clavesins. In insects, very little is known about either the molecular evolution of this family of proteins or their ligand(More)
"Informed consent" is an action. It is a process that fulfills the pretreatment ethical obligations of provider to patient. Through the process, the provider discloses meaningful and realistic facts about positive and negative expectations concerning the proposed intervention and addresses concerns that are pertinent to the patient. Disclosure is of facts(More)
Modulation of millimeter and submillimeter-wave beams via an optically excited semiconductor substrate is a potentially powerful technique, but typically requires high optical illumination densities. Various methods are outlined that yield reduced illumination levels and enable optimization of the substrate. As an example device, the photo-injected Fresnel(More)
Heliconius possess a unique ability among butterflies to feed on pollen. Pollen feeding significantly extends their lifespan, and is thought to have been important to the diversification of the genus. We used RNA sequencing to examine feeding-related gene expression in the mouthparts of four species of Heliconius and one nonpollen feeding species, Eueides(More)