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Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 was isolated without enrichment by plating atrazine-contaminated soil directly onto atrazine-clearing plates. A. aurescens TC1 grew in liquid medium with atrazine as the sole source of nitrogen, carbon, and energy, consuming up to 3,000 mg of atrazine per liter. A. aurescens TC1 is metabolically diverse and grew on a wider(More)
The TrzN protein, which is involved in s-triazine herbicide catabolism by Arthrobacter aurescens TC1, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged protein. The recombinant protein was purified via nickel column chromatography. The purified TrzN protein was tested with 31 s-triazine and pyrimidine ring compounds; 22 of the tested compounds(More)
The c-Abl protein tyrosine kinase is activated by certain DNA-damaging agents and regulates induction of the stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (SAPK). Here we show that nuclear c-Abl associates with MEK kinase 1 (MEKK-1), an upstream effector of the SEK1-->SAPK pathway, in the response of cells to genotoxic stress. The results demonstrate(More)
Bacterial atrazine catabolism is initiated by the enzyme atrazine chlorohydrolase (AtzA) in Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Other triazine herbicides are metabolized by bacteria, but the enzymological basis of this is unclear. Here we begin to address this by investigating the catalytic activity of AtzA by using substrate analogs. Purified AtzA from Pseudomonas(More)
N-Isopropylammelide isopropylaminohydrolase, AtzC, the third enzyme in the atrazine degradation pathway in Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, catalyzes the stoichiometric hydrolysis of N-isopropylammelide to cyanuric acid and isopropylamine. The atzC gene was cloned downstream of the tac promoter and expressed in Escherichia coli, where the expressed enzyme(More)
Hydroxyatrazine [2-(N-ethylamino)-4-hydroxy-6-(N-isopropylamino)-1,3,5-triazine] N-ethylaminohydrolase (AtzB) is the sole enzyme known to catalyze the hydrolytic conversion of hydroxyatrazine to N-isopropylammelide. AtzB, therefore, serves as the point of intersection of multiple s-triazine biodegradative pathways and is completely essential for microbial(More)
Bacteriophage lambda development is blocked in cells carrying a plasmid that expresses the terminase genes of phage 21. The interference is caused by the small subunit of phage 21 terminase, gp1. Mutants of lambda able to form plaques in the presence of gp1 include sti mutants. One such mutation, sti30, is an A. T-to-G.C transition mutation at base pair 184(More)
2-Chloro-4,6-diamino-s-triazine (CAAT) is a metabolite of atrazine biodegradation in soils. Atrazine chlorohydrolase (AtzA) catalyzes the dechlorination of atrazine but is unreactive with CAAT. In this study, melamine deaminase (TriA), which is 98% identical to AtzA, catalyzed deamination of CAAT to produce 2-chloro-4-amino-6-hydroxy-s-triazine (CAOT). CAOT(More)
The extents of the sites for nicking (cosN) and binding (cosB) of bacteriophage lambda DNA by terminase have been determined by studying cos cleavage and terminase binding in vitro. The cosN site is located in the segment from -22 to +24 bp (numbered from the center of the cohesive end sequence in the circular lambda genome). The cosB site is located in the(More)