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Microarrays can measure the expression of thousands of genes to identify changes in expression between different biological states. Methods are needed to determine the significance of these changes while accounting for the enormous number of genes. We describe a method, Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), that assigns a score to each gene on the(More)
We have devised an approach to cancer class prediction from gene expression profiling, based on an enhancement of the simple nearest prototype (centroid) classifier. We shrink the prototypes and hence obtain a classifier that is often more accurate than competing methods. Our method of "nearest shrunken centroids" identifies subsets of genes that best(More)
Electric fields can be manipulated by a method in which multiple electrodes are arranged along a closed contour and clamped to predetermined electric potentials. This method may be applied to a broad range of problems in the separation of macromolecules by gel electrophoresis. DNA molecules as large as 2 megabases can be well separated with a(More)
In human cells, efficient global genomic repair of DNA damage induced by ultraviolet radiation requires the p53 tumor suppressor, but the mechanism has been unclear. The p48 gene is required for expression of an ultraviolet radiation-damaged DNA binding activity and is disrupted by mutations in the subset of xeroderma pigmentosum group E cells that lack(More)
The xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein complex plays a key role in recognizing DNA damage throughout the genome for mammalian nucleotide excision repair (NER). Ultraviolet light (UV)-damaged DNA binding protein (UV-DDB) is another complex that appears to be involved in the recognition of NER-inducing damage, although the precise role it plays and(More)
We propose a new method for class prediction in DNA microarray studies based on an enhancement of the nearest prototype classifier. Our technique uses " shrunken " centroids as prototypes for each class to identify the subsets of the genes that best characterize each class. The method is general and can be applied to other high-dimensional classification(More)
UV-damaged DNA-binding activity (UV-DDB) is deficient in some xeroderma pigmentosum group E individuals due to mutation of the p48 gene, but its role in DNA repair has been obscure. We found that UV-DDB is also deficient in cell lines and primary tissues from rodents. Transfection of p48 conferred UV-DDB to hamster cells, and enhanced removal of cyclobutane(More)
We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the RAD3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The coding region of the gene contained 2,334 base pairs that could encode a protein with a calculated molecular weight of 89,796. Analysis of RAD3 mRNA by Northern blots and by S1 nuclease mapping indicated that the transcript was approximately 2.5 kilobases and(More)
The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK(CS)) is required for a non-homologous end-joining pathway that repairs DNA double-strand breaks produced by ionizing radiation or V(D)J recombination; however, its role in this pathway has remained obscure. Using a neutravidin pull-down assay, we found that DNA-PK(CS) mediates formation of a(More)
This study addresses the prevalence of ATM mutations and the association with breast cancer in Austrian families selected for a history of breast or ovarian cancer or both [hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC)]. In 270 HBOC families previously screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, 137 different sequence alterations of ATM were identified. Seven of(More)