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This article introduces a procedure for estimating reliability in which equivalent halves of a given test are systematically created and then administered a few days apart so that transient error can be included in the error calculus. The procedure not only estimates complete reliability (taking into account both specific-factor error and transient error)(More)
Methodological and conceptual problems common in prenatal stress experiments were analyzed, and an experiment incorporating solutions to those problems were designed and executed. Rats were prenatally stressed or served as controls and then were cross-fostered within or between treatment groups. In adulthood, one male from each litter was tested over 20(More)
Cronbach alpha and Cohen kappa were compared and found to differ along two major facets. A fourfold classification system based on these facets clarifies the double contrast and produces a common metric allowing direct comparability. A new estimator, coefficient beta, is introduced in the process and is presented as a complement to coefficient alpha in(More)
This article addresses deficiencies in the most widely used estimators of reliability and draws attention to the reason that this issue is important. Accurate calibration of relationships between constructs is critical to theory development. Unless workers have accurate estimates of scale reliability, accurate estimates of those relationships will not be(More)
Items in various scales that measure socially desirable responding (SDR) appear to vary in significance in male and female respondents. Recent findings suggest that females are more sensitive to the contents of more than two-thirds of such items. As a result, scales that measure SDR cannot be considered gender balanced, not to mention gender free. We(More)
This article introduces McDonald's unified treatment of test theory, which merges the major contributions of Spearman (True Score Theory and Common Factor Theory) with aspects of Item Response Theory. The fundamentals are first presented. followed by elaboration of selected aspects of the treatment. An SAS program is given that estimates relevant parameters.