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Visual fields were determined in alert restrained birds using an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique. The region of binocular overlap is relatively small: maximum width of 20 degrees occurs approximately 15 degrees below the horizontal, and the field extends vertically through 80 degrees with the bill tip placed close to the centre. Monocular field width in(More)
The visual fields and eye movements of three heron species (Ardeidae; Ciconiiformes): the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), the squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides), the western reef heron (Egretta gularis schistacea) were determined in alert, restrained birds using an ophthalmoscopic technique. All three species can gain panoramic visual coverage of the frontal(More)
The optical structure of the eyes of ostriches (Struthio camelus; Struthionidae; Struthioniformes) was determined by the construction of a schematic eye model for paraxial optics. The eye is large (axial length = 38 mm) and of globose shape with an anterior focal length (posterior nodal distance) of 21.8 mm. The optical design of the eye is such that the(More)
Visual field width above the head is significantly correlated (r(s) = 0.92, n = 11, p < 0.001) with eye size in a sample of terrestrial birds that differ in their phylogeny and ecology. These species can be divided into two groups. Smaller-eyed sun-observers (axial length <18 mm) have comprehensive or near comprehensive visual coverage of the celestial(More)
The 2011 National Electrical Code® requires PV DC series arc-fault protection but does not require parallel arcfault protection. As a result, manufacturers are creating arcfault circuit interrupters (AFCIs) which only safely de-energize the arcing circuit when a series arc-fault occurs. Since AFCI devices often use the broadband AC noise on the DC side of(More)
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