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OBJECTIVE To identify and characterize a fully human antibody directed against B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), a tumor necrosis factor-related cytokine that plays a critical role in the regulation of B cell maturation and development. Elevated levels of BLyS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. METHODS A human phage display(More)
Dicer gene dcl2, required for the RNA silencing antiviral defense response in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, is inducible upon mycovirus infection and promotes viral RNA recombination. We now report that the antiviral defense response requires only one of the four C. parasitica Argonaute-like protein genes, agl2. The agl2 gene is(More)
We report characterization of the gene encoding putative transcription factor PRO1, identified in transcriptional profiling studies as being downregulated in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica in response to infection by virulence-attenuating hypoviruses. Sequence analysis confirmed that pro1 encodes a Zn(II)(2)Cys(6) binuclear cluster DNA(More)
Genetic nonself recognition systems such as vegetative incompatibility operate in many filamentous fungi to regulate hyphal fusion between genetically dissimilar individuals and to restrict the spread of virulence-attenuating mycoviruses that have potential for biological control of pathogenic fungi. We report here the use of a comparative genomics approach(More)
The latter stages of peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Staphylococci involve the synthesis of a pentaglycine bridge on the epsilon amino group of the pentapeptide lysine side chain. Genetic and biochemical evidence suggest that sequential addition of these glycines is catalyzed by three homologous enzymes, FemX (FmhB), FemA, and FemB. The first protein(More)
It is well established that the humoral immune response can generate antibodies to many different antigens. The antibody diversity required to achieve this is believed to be substantial. However, the extent to which the immune repertoire can generate structural diversity against a single target antigen has never been addressed. Here, we have used phage(More)
Anthrax is caused by the gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin consists of three proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor. Current vaccines against anthrax use PA as their primary component since it confers protective immunity. In this work, we expressed soluble, recombinant PA in relatively(More)
The first crystal structure of Class II peptide deformylase has been determined. The enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus has been overexpressed and purified in Escherichia coli and the structure determined by x-ray crystallography to 1.9 A resolution. The purified iron-enriched form of S. aureus peptide deformylase enzyme retained high activity over many(More)
Anthrax is caused by the gram-positive spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin consists of three proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). PA facilitates the translocation of LF and EF into the cytosol of mammalian cells. LF is thought to be a zinc-dependent metalloprotease that results in death. EF(More)
Intoxication of mammalian cells by Bacillus anthracis requires the coordinate activity of three distinct bacterial proteins: protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF). Among these proteins, PA has become the major focus of work on monoclonal antibodies and vaccines designed to treat or prevent anthrax infection since neither EF nor(More)