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The leukocyte function-associated molecule-1 (LFA-1) plays a key role in cell adhesion processes between cells of the immune system. We investigated the mechanism that may regulate LFA-1-ligand interactions, which result in cell-cell adhesion. To this end we employed an intriguing anti-LFA-1 alpha mAb (NKI-L16), capable of inducing rather than inhibiting(More)
Given prior evidence that adhesion molecules play critical roles in T cell recognition, it is important to identify new adhesion pathways and explore their role in T cell activation. Our studies of T cell proliferation complement concurrent studies of T cell adhesion; both demonstrate that resting CD4+ human T lymphocytes express the VLA integrins VLA-4,(More)
To obtain an insight into the evolutionary origin of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I polymorphism, a cDNA library was prepared from a heterozygous chimpanzee cell line expressing MHC class I molecules crossreacting with allele-specific HLA-A11 antibodies. The library was screened with human class I locus-specific DNA probes, and clones(More)
The formation of a conjugate between a T cell and an APC requires the activation of integrins on the T cell surface and remodeling of cytoskeletal elements at the cell-cell contact site via inside-out signaling. The early events in this signaling pathway are not well understood, and may differ from the events involved in adhesion to immobilized ligands. We(More)
Regulated adhesion of T cells to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is likely to be essential in T cell migration. Constitutive binding of various other cell types to ECM components is mediated by members of the VLA (very late antigen) subfamily of integrins. We describe here the regulated binding of resting CD4+ human T cells to ECM through three VLA(More)
This review summarizes our recent work on expression and function of 4 integrins on resting human CD4+ T cells. Three themes are highlighted: multiplicity of molecular pathways of adhesion, regulation of adhesion, and costimulation by adhesion molecules. Four distinct receptor/ligand interactions have been elucidated: LFA-1/ICAM-1, VLA-5/fibronection,(More)
The CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 [PECAM-1]/endothelial cell adhesion molecule [endoCAM]) molecule expressed on leukocytes, platelets, and endothelial cells is postulated to mediate adhesion to endothelial cells and thereby function in immunity, inflammation, and wound healing. We report the following novel features of CD31 which(More)
Proliferative response of resting T cells generally requires not only cross-linking of the T cell receptor (TcR) but also co-stimulatory signals from accessory molecules. We here have used a "three-cell" model consisting of: (a) resting human CD4+ T cells as responders; (b) CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) OKT3 on latex beads as surrogate stimulators; (c)(More)
Type I IFNs, IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, are early effectors of innate immune responses against microbes that can also regulate subsequent adaptive immunity by promoting antimicrobial Th1-type responses. In contrast, the ability of IFN-beta to inhibit autoimmune Th1 responses is thought to account for some of the beneficial effects of IFN-beta therapy in the(More)
The beta 1 subfamily of integrins is thought to play an important role in both the adhesion/migration and proliferation/differentiation of T cells. beta 1 integrins can provide T cell costimulation through interaction of very late antigen (VLA) 4 (VLA-4) (alpha 4 beta 1) and VLA-5 (alpha 5 beta 1) with the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN), or(More)