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Cas9–crRNA ribonucleoprotein complex mediates specific DNA cleavage for adaptive immunity in bacteria
Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems provide adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids in bacteria and archaea. The silencing ofExpand
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The Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR/Cas system provides immunity in Escherichia coli
The CRISPR/Cas adaptive immune system provides resistance against phages and plasmids in Archaea and Bacteria. CRISPR loci integrate short DNA sequences from invading genetic elements that provideExpand
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Cas3 is a single‐stranded DNA nuclease and ATP‐dependent helicase in the CRISPR/Cas immune system
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) is a recently discovered adaptive prokaryotic immune system that provides acquired immunity against foreign nucleic acids byExpand
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Direct observation of R-loop formation by single RNA-guided Cas9 and Cascade effector complexes
Significance Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems provide adaptive immunity for bacteria and archaea. They use a protein complex thatExpand
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In vitro reconstitution of Cascade‐mediated CRISPR immunity in Streptococcus thermophilus
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)‐encoded immunity in Type I systems relies on the Cascade (CRISPR‐associated complex for antiviral defence) ribonucleoproteinExpand
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crRNA and tracrRNA guide Cas9-mediated DNA interference in Streptococcus thermophilus
The Cas9-crRNA complex of the Streptococcus thermophilus DGCC7710 CRISPR3-Cas system functions as an RNA-guided endonuclease with crRNA-directed target sequence recognition and protein-mediated DNAExpand
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Rapid characterization of CRISPR-Cas9 protospacer adjacent motif sequence elements
To expand the repertoire of Cas9s available for genome targeting, we present a new in vitro method for the simultaneous examination of guide RNA and protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) requirements. TheExpand
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Molecular mechanisms of CRISPR-mediated microbial immunity
Bacteriophages (phages) infect bacteria in order to replicate and burst out of the host, killing the cell, when reproduction is completed. Thus, from a bacterial perspective, phages pose a persistentExpand
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Lactase non-persistence is directed by DNA variation-dependent epigenetic aging
The inability to digest lactose, due to lactase nonpersistence, is a common trait in adult mammals, except in certain human populations that exhibit lactase persistence. It is not known how theExpand
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Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR-Cas9 Systems Enable Specific Editing of the Human Genome.
RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) based on the type II CRISPR-Cas9 system of Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) have been widely used for genome editing in experimental models. However, the nontrivial level ofExpand
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