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Type I Interferons (IFNs) are important cytokines for innate immunity against viruses and cancer. Sixteen human type I IFN variants signal through the same cell-surface receptors, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, yet they can evoke markedly different physiological effects. The crystal structures of two human type I IFN ternary signaling complexes containing IFNα2 and(More)
Several types of extremely thermophilic archaebacteria have recently been isolated from solfataric water holes, hot springs and hot sea floors. It has been shown that some of them can live using sulphur respiration of reduced carbon substrates as a source of energy, a type of metabolism previously described for the eubacterium Desulfuromonas. We report here(More)
The CAPRI (Critical Assessment of Predicted Interactions) and CASP (Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction) experiments have demonstrated the power of community-wide tests of methodology in assessing the current state of the art and spurring progress in the very challenging areas of protein docking and structure prediction. We sought to bring(More)
Inflammation in HIV infection is predictive of non-AIDS morbidity and death, higher set point plasma virus load and virus acquisition; thus, therapeutic agents are in development to reduce its causes and consequences. However, inflammation may simultaneously confer both detrimental and beneficial effects. This dichotomy is particularly applicable to type I(More)
Interactions between macromolecules in general, and between proteins in particular, are essential for any life process. Examples include transfer of information, inhibition or activation of function, molecular recognition as in the immune system, assembly of macromolecular structures and molecular machines, and more. Proteins interact with affinities(More)
The formation of specific protein interactions plays a crucial role in most, if not all, biological processes, including signal transduction, cell regulation, the immune response and others. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular architecture of protein-protein binding sites, which facilitates such diversity in binding affinity and(More)
The 3D structures of macromolecules are difficult to grasp and also to communicate. By their nature, movies or animations are particularly useful for highlighting key features by offering a 'guided tour' of structures and conformation changes. However, high-quality movies are rarely seen because they are currently difficult and time consuming to make. By(More)
The development of bioinformatic tools by individual labs results in the abundance of parallel programs for the same task. For example, identification of binding site regions between interacting proteins is done using: ProMate, WHISCY, PPI-Pred, PINUP and others. All servers first identify unique properties of binding sites and then incorporate them into a(More)
The three-dimensional structures of proteins are stabilized by the interactions between amino acid residues. Here we report a method where four distances are calculated between any two side chains to provide an exact spatial definition of their bonds. The data were binned into a four-dimensional grid and compared to a random model, from which the preference(More)
Protein-protein interactions networks has come to be a buzzword associated with nets containing edges that represent a pair of interacting proteins (e.g. hormone-receptor, enzyme-inhibitor, antigen-antibody, and a subset of multichain biological machines). Yet, each such interaction composes its own unique network, in which vertices represent amino acid(More)