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The interactions between organisms and their environments can shape distributions of spatial genetic variation, resulting in patterns of isolation by environment (IBE) in which genetic and environmental distances are positively correlated, independent of geographic distance. IBE represents one of the most important patterns that results from the ways in(More)
Populations can be genetically isolated both by geographic distance and by differences in their ecology or environment that decrease the rate of successful migration. Empirical studies often seek to investigate the relationship between genetic differentiation and some ecological variable(s) while accounting for geographic distance, but common approaches to(More)
Geographic patterns of genetic variation within modern populations, produced by complex histories of migration, can be difficult to infer and visually summarize. A general consequence of geographically limited dispersal is that samples from nearby locations tend to be more closely related than samples from distant locations, and so genetic covariance often(More)
Discussions aimed at resolution of the Tree of Life are most often focused on the interrelationships of major organismal lineages. In this study, we focus on the resolution of some of the most apical branches in the Tree of Life through exploration of the phylogenetic relationships of darters, a species-rich clade of North American freshwater fishes. With a(More)
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen that infects humans, domestic animals and wildlife throughout the Holarctic. In the far-western United States, multiple rodent species have been implicated as natural reservoirs for A. phagocytophilum. However, the presence of multiple A. phagocytophilum strains has made it difficult to determine(More)
Uncovering the genetic and evolutionary basis of local adaptation is a major focus of evolutionary biology. The recent development of cost-effective methods for obtaining high-quality genome-scale data makes it possible to identify some of the loci responsible for adaptive differences among populations. Two basic approaches for identifying putatively(More)
Substantial research has addressed adaptation of nonnative biota to novel environments, yet surprisingly little work has integrated population genetic structure and the mechanisms underlying phenotypic differentiation in ecologically important traits. We report on studies of the common milkweed Asclepias syriaca, which was introduced from North America to(More)
The emerging tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects humans, domestic animals, and wildlife throughout the Holarctic. In the western US, the ecology of A. phagocytophilum is particularly complex, with multiple pathogen strains, tick vectors, and reservoir hosts. A recent phylogenetic analysis of A. phagocytophilum strains isolated from various(More)
Genetic divergence between populations is shaped by a combination of drift, migration, and selection, yielding patterns of isolation-by-distance (IBD) and isolation-by-environment (IBE). Unfortunately, IBD and IBE may be confounded when comparing divergence across habitat boundaries. For instance, parapatric lake and stream threespine stickleback(More)
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