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An important virulence strategy evolved by bacterial pathogens to overcome host defenses is the modulation of host cell death. Previous observations have indicated that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague disease, exhibits restricted capacity to induce cell death in macrophages due to ineffective translocation of the type III secretion effector(More)
Oxidized phospholipids (Ox-PLs) are generated in abundance at sites of inflammation. Recent studies have indicated that Ox-PLs may also exhibit anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effect of VB-201, a pure synthetic Ox-PL analog that we synthesized, on the development of a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune(More)
Plague, initiated by Yersinia pestis infection, is a rapidly progressing disease with a high mortality rate if not quickly treated. The existence of antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains emphasizes the need for the development of novel countermeasures against plague. We previously reported the generation of a recombinant Y. pestis strain (Kim53ΔJ+P) that(More)
UNLABELLED Sample-based preclinical drug efficacy studies compare frequency (proportion) or incidences of successes within respective samples of test and control groups. The word success in principle refers to a protected (e.g., due to vaccination), recovered, or surviving animal, depending on the particular experiment. We introduce here a modified t-test(More)
Therapists of different persuasions use various techniques. Although many of these techniques are specific to their theory of treatment, others are practiced in common among different forms of psychotherapy. Many of these common techniques have been previously described, but supportive techniques have been largely ignored. The authors distinguish between(More)
We argue that there are important areas of overlap in the types of patient change processes that occur in cognitive therapy and dynamic therapy. These common processes of patient change have been obscured by differences in language and theoretical constructs between the two traditions. We suggest that the acquisition of adaptive skills describes patient(More)
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