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An important virulence strategy evolved by bacterial pathogens to overcome host defenses is the modulation of host cell death. Previous observations have indicated that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague disease, exhibits restricted capacity to induce cell death in macrophages due to ineffective translocation of the type III secretion effector(More)
Plague is a life-threatening disease caused by Yersinia pestis, for which effective-licensed vaccines and reliable predictors of in vivo immunity are lacking. V antigen (LcrV) is a major Y. pestis virulence factor that mediates translocation of the cytotoxic Yersinia protein effectors (Yops). It is a well-established protective antigen and a part of(More)
The aim of this study was to compare some aspects of cholesterol accretion and cholesterol efflux in cellular components of the aortic wall derived from mice resistant or susceptible to atherosclerosis, FVB or C57BL, respectively. Cholesterol efflux, from cholesterol loaded smooth muscle cells or elicited macrophages, to apo A-I or HDL was similar in the(More)
T he selection of an appropriate occlusal registration strip enables the dentist to work with precision and provides valuable information on occlusion. There are significant differences in the thickness, strength, and plastic deformation of the various articulating papers and occlusal registration strips. The patient's perception of occlusal thickness(More)
Seventeen cholesteryl alkyl ethers were synthesized through alcoholysis of cholesterol p-toluenesulfonate. This method was found superior to the etherification of sodium or potassium cholesterylate with alkyl halides or methanesulfonates, especially for the preparation of long-chain unsaturated aklyl ethers of [7(m)-3H]cholesterol of high specific activity.
Markers of the early stages of plague, a rapidly progressing deadly disease, are crucial for enabling the onset of an effective treatment. Here, we show that V-antigen protein (LcrV) is accumulated in the serum of Yersinia pestis-infected mice before bacterial colonization of the spleen and dissemination to blood, in a model of bubonic plague. LcrV(More)
Activation of LXR in cultured cells results in enhancement of cholesterol efflux to apo Al. To study cholesterol efflux, in vivo cationized LDL was injected into the rectus femoris muscle of mice to create a lipoprotein depot. LXR ligand TO901317, 10 mg/kg, was given by gavage for 8 days, starting 4 days after injection of the lipoprotein. The rate of(More)
Oxidized phospholipids (Ox-PLs) are generated in abundance at sites of inflammation. Recent studies have indicated that Ox-PLs may also exhibit anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effect of VB-201, a pure synthetic Ox-PL analog that we synthesized, on the development of a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune(More)
Plague, initiated by Yersinia pestis infection, is a rapidly progressing disease with a high mortality rate if not quickly treated. The existence of antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains emphasizes the need for the development of novel countermeasures against plague. We previously reported the generation of a recombinant Y. pestis strain (Kim53ΔJ+P) that(More)