Gibson S. Kibiki

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Infectious diseases exert a constant evolutionary pressure on the genetic makeup of our innate immune system. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been related to susceptibility to Gram-negative infections and septic shock. Here we show that two polymorphisms of TLR4, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, have unique distributions in populations from(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem and HIV is the major cause of the increase in TB. Sub-Saharan Africa is endemic for both TB and HIV infection. Determination of the prevalence of M. tuberculosis strains and their drug susceptibility is important for TB control. TB positive culture, BAL fluid or sputum samples from 130 patients were collected and(More)
One-third of the world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and hence at risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB). Each year, 8.8 million patients are newly diagnosed with active TB and 1.6 million patients die of TB. The rapid spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has fueled the TB epidemic, especially in sub-Saharan(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in the pattern recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene influence the function of the receptor. We therefore investigated in a cohort of HIV-infected Tanzanian patients whether the Asp299Gly TLR4 polymorphism is associated with the development of active tuberculosis. We(More)
SETTING Kilimanjaro Region, northern Tanzania. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of the introduction of the patient-centred tuberculosis treatment (PCT) approach-which allows tuberculosis (TB) patients to choose between community and facility-based directly observed treatment (DOT)-on treatment outcomes, and to analyse factors that contribute to opting for(More)
Upper gastro-intestinal (GI) bleeding is a life-threatening emergency that results in high morbidity and mortality and therefore requires admission to hospital for urgent diagnosis and management. The aim of this study was to determine the causes of upper GI bleeding and clinical outcome of patients admitted to medical department with the diagnosis of upper(More)
Despite the apparent public health concern about Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Tanzania, little has been done regarding the zoonotic importance of the disease and raising awareness of the community to prevent the disease. Bovine tuberculosis is a potential zoonotic disease that can infect a variety of hosts, including humans. The presence of multiple(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) in Africa is increasing because of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and in HIV/AIDS patients it presents atypically. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Africa is mainly diagnosed clinically, by chest radiograph or by sputum smear for acid fast bacilli (AFB). METHODS We evaluated in 120 HIV-infected patients with(More)
Hospitalized patients with HIV infection are among the most likely to benefit from the expanding availability of anti-retroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. Between 1990 and 2000, 3667 people known to be HIV-infected were admitted to Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Moshi, northen Tanzania. The level of inpatient mortality among these(More)
BACKGROUND Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic debilitating disease and is a cause of morbidity and mortality in livestock, wildlife and humans. This study estimated the prevalence and risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis transmission in indigenous cattle at the human-animal interface in the Serengeti ecosystem of Tanzania. RESULTS A total(More)