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Infectious diseases exert a constant evolutionary pressure on the genetic makeup of our innate immune system. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been related to susceptibility to Gram-negative infections and septic shock. Here we show that two polymorphisms of TLR4, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, have unique distributions in populations from(More)
Hospitalized patients with HIV infection are among the most likely to benefit from the expanding availability of anti-retroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. Between 1990 and 2000, 3667 people known to be HIV-infected were admitted to Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Moshi, northen Tanzania. The level of inpatient mortality among these(More)
The TaqMan Array Card (TAC) system is a 384-well singleplex real-time PCR format that has been used to detect multiple infection targets. Here we developed an enteric TaqMan Array Card to detect 19 enteropathogens, including viruses (adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus GII, rotavirus, and sapovirus), bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli, Clostridium(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) in Africa is increasing because of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and in HIV/AIDS patients it presents atypically. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Africa is mainly diagnosed clinically, by chest radiograph or by sputum smear for acid fast bacilli (AFB). METHODS We evaluated in 120 HIV-infected patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood diarrhoea can be caused by many pathogens that are difficult to assay in the laboratory. Molecular diagnostic techniques provide a uniform method to detect and quantify candidate enteropathogens. We aimed to develop and assess molecular tests for identification of enteropathogens and their association with disease. METHODS We(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in the pattern recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene influence the function of the receptor. We therefore investigated in a cohort of HIV-infected Tanzanian patients whether the Asp299Gly TLR4 polymorphism is associated with the development of active tuberculosis. We(More)
As malaria transmission declines, continued improvements of prevention and control interventions will increasingly rely on accurate knowledge of risk factors and an ability to define high-risk areas and populations at risk for focal targeting of interventions. This paper explores the independent association between living in a hotspot and prospective risk(More)
SETTING Kilimanjaro Region, northern Tanzania. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of the introduction of the patient-centred tuberculosis treatment (PCT) approach-which allows tuberculosis (TB) patients to choose between community and facility-based directly observed treatment (DOT)-on treatment outcomes, and to analyse factors that contribute to opting for(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem and HIV is the major cause of the increase in TB. Sub-Saharan Africa is endemic for both TB and HIV infection. Determination of the prevalence of M. tuberculosis strains and their drug susceptibility is important for TB control.TB positive culture, BAL fluid or sputum samples from 130 patients were(More)