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ADHD prevalence has risen in parallel with rising prevalence of pregnancy smoking and childhood obesity. The objective was to determine the epidemiological association of pregnancy smoking and childhood obesity with ADHD. A cross-sectional community study was conducted in 2006 using a parental questionnaire. A total of 1,074 schoolchildren aged 5-11 years(More)
BACKGROUND Some studies reported similar effect estimates for the impact of maternal smoking in pregnancy and paternal smoking on childhood obesity, whereas others suggested higher effects for maternal smoking. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the effect of in utero exposure to maternal smoking and that of paternal or household smoking exposure in(More)
Nutritional iron deficiency may limit iron availability to the malaria parasite reducing infection risk, and/or impair host immunity thereby increasing this risk. In pregnant women, there is evidence of an adverse effect with iron supplementation, but the few reported studies are strongly confounded. A case control study in pregnant Malawian women was(More)
BACKGROUND To determine changes in prevalence of parental and childhood asthma in Merseyside between 1991 and 2006. METHODS Four standardized cross-sectional respiratory surveys using a parent-completed questionnaire were completed in 1991 (n = 1171), 1993 (n = 2368) 1998 (n = 1964) and in 2006 (n = 1074) among primary school children attending the same(More)
The effects of iron interventions and host iron status on infection risk have been a recurrent clinical concern, although there has been little research on this interaction in pregnant women. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were undertaken to determine the association of whole blood zinc erythrocyte protoporphyrin (ZPP) with malaria parasitaemia(More)
BACKGROUND The combined dose response effects of pregnancy cigarette smoke exposure on childhood overweight, obesity and short stature have not been reported. METHOD A community based cross-sectional survey of 3038 children aged 5-11 years from 15 primary schools in Merseyside, UK. Self-completed parental questionnaires were used for family(More)
BACKGROUND Compliance is a critical issue for parental questionnaires in school based epidemiological surveys and high compliance is difficult to achieve. The objective of this study was to determine trends and factors associated with parental questionnaire compliance during respiratory health surveys of school children in Merseyside between 1991 and 2006.(More)
BACKGROUND A recent decline in the male:female (M:F) sex ratio may relate to pregnancy cigarette smoke exposure. AIM To assess trends and cigarette exposure dose-response effects on the sex ratio. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A retrospective analysis was carried out of deliveries at the Liverpool Women's Hospital between 1998 and 2003, and of deliveries(More)
To assess the impact of parental asthma on risk of pre-term birth (PTB) and intrauterine growth restriction, and their subsequent association with childhood asthma. Three sequential cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 1993 (3,746), 1998 (1,964) and 2006 (1,074) in the same 15 schools among 5–11 year old children in Merseyside using the same(More)
Background: Some studies reported similar effect estimates for the impact of maternal smoking in pregnancy and paternal smoking on childhood obesity, whereas others suggested higher effects for maternal smoking. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the effect of in utero exposure to maternal smoking and that of paternal or household smoking exposure in(More)
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