Gianvito Martino

Learn More
Widespread demyelination and axonal loss are the pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. The multifocal nature of this chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system complicates cellular therapy and puts emphasis on both the donor cell origin and the route of cell transplantation. We established syngenic adult neural stem cell cultures and(More)
Cell renewal in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is limited, and is blocked in inflammatory brain conditions. We show that both neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis of adult neural progenitor cells in mice are blocked by inflammation-associated (endotoxin-activated) microglia, but induced by microglia activated by cytokines (IL-4 or low level of(More)
In degenerative disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), transplantation of neural multipotent (stem) precursor cells (NPCs) is aimed at replacing damaged neural cells. Here we show that in CNS inflammation, NPCs are able to promote neuroprotection by maintaining undifferentiated features and exerting unexpected immune-like functions. In a mouse model(More)
Recent evidence shows that transplantation of neural stem/precursor cells may protect the central nervous system from inflammatory damage through a 'bystander' mechanism that is alternative to cell replacement. This novel mechanism, which might improve the success of transplantation procedures, is exerted by undifferentiated neural stem cells, the(More)
BACKGROUND Although macrophages (MPhi) are known as essential players in wound healing, their contribution to recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) is a subject of debate. The difficulties in distinguishing between different MPhi subpopulations at the lesion site have further contributed to the controversy and led to the common view of MPhi as functionally(More)
The well regulated activities of microglia and T cells specific to central nervous system (CNS) antigens can contribute to the protection of CNS neural cells and their renewal from adult neural stem/progenitor cells (aNPCs). Here we report that T cell-based vaccination of mice with a myelin-derived peptide, when combined with transplantation of aNPCs into(More)
Endogenous neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are considered a functional reservoir for promoting tissue homeostasis and repair after injury, therefore regenerative strategies that mobilize these cells have recently been proposed. Despite evidence of increased neurogenesis upon acute inflammatory insults (e.g. ischaemic stroke), the plasticity of the(More)
OBJECTIVE Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) display peculiar therapeutic plasticity in vivo. Although the replacement of cells was first expected as the prime therapeutic mechanism of stem cells in regenerative medicine, it is now clear that transplanted NPCs simultaneously instruct several therapeutic mechanisms, among which replacement of(More)
Neurodegeneration is the irremediable pathological event occurring during chronic inflammatory diseases of the CNS. Here we show that, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, inflammation is capable in enhancing glutamate transmission in the striatum and in promoting synaptic degeneration and dendritic spine(More)
Transient rearrangements of finger representation in primary somatosensory cortex induced by an anesthetic block of the sensory information from adjacent fingers have been shown invasively in animals. Such a phenomenon has been now replicated in seven healthy human volunteers. Somatosensory Evoked Fields (SEFs) have been recorded during separate electrical(More)